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PNRP 31(1) 2012 r.


Geastrum triplex in Poland - present-day occurrence,
distribution and assessment of its threatened status


The paper summarizes data on the present occurrence of Geastrum triplex in Poland. The study is based on literature data, specimens deposited in fungaria and recent field collections of the authors.
The species is protected by law and classified as threatened (taxon in danger of extinction) in Poland.
In the 80s it was known from only 10 locations in Poland. Over the last 30 years the species has been observed on numerous new sites. Now it is known from 112 localities. Geastrum triplex occurs in natural forest communities, where it grows mainly on roadsides, and in anthropogenic habitats, e.g. in cities, villages and buffer strips. Finally, it was assumed that the population of Geastrum triplex in Poland is not endangered (LC category) and its further protection by law is unfounded.


Scarlet Elfcup Sarcoscypha austriaca (O. Beck ex Sacc.) Boud.
in Greater Poland


The first unpublished localities of Scarlet Elfcup Sarcoscypha austriaca in Greater Poland come from 1977. The numerous, dispersed new stands of this species, found in the region during the last 8 years, indicate that Sarcoscypha austriaca is widely distributed and not rare within this area. Fifteen new localities of Sarcoscypha austriaca were described and the distribution of this fungus in Greater Poland was presented.


Contribution to the bryoflora of Central Poland. Mosses and liverworts
of the Czarny Ług peat bog reserve and its
buffer zone (Łódź Province)


This article presents the results of research of the Czarny Ług reserve and its buffer zone in 2010 and 2011. Czarny Ług reserve is located in Łódź Province, near Tomaszów Mazowiecki and Wolbórz; between the villages of Młoszów and Swolszewice Duże (Fig. 1). Three types of plant communities were found in the reserved area: Sphagnum magellanici, Caricetum limosae and Caricetum rostrate. However, in the buffer zone of the Czarny Lug reserve forest communities Molinio - Pinetum were also recorded (KUCHARSKI, GRZYL 1991). 56 species of the bryophytes were recorde during the research - 50 mosses and six liverworts. The species belong to 23 families. The most popular family was Dicranaceae (eight species - which is 14% of all recorded bryophytes). The researched area includes 17 species which are under legal protection. The research discovered one alien species of moss - Orthodontium lineare (Fig. 2). Five types of habitat were found in the reserve area and its buffer zone: epigeic, epixylic, epiphytic, epilitic and aquatic. The highest number of species was found on the buffer zone of the reserve on epigeic (38) and epixylic (21) habitats, and the smallest (two) on epilitic habitat.


Flora and vegetation of the Wrząca nature reserve (Central Poland)


The Wrząca forest nature reserve is situated in the south-west part of the Złoczew Upland and covers an area of 59.70 hectares. The reserve was established on 11 December 1995 in order to protect the lowland acid beech forest (Luzulo pilosae - Fagetum) near the natural north range limit of Fagus sylvatica and Abies alba.
The main aim of the research, conducted from April to September 2009, was to investigate the flora and vegetation of the reserve. The flora of vascular plants consists of 155 species. Also, 21 species of mosses were found in the reserve. Heterogenic habitats and human pressure (forest roads) resulted in a large number of vascular plant species. The largest areas in the reserve are covered by phytocenoses of the Luzulo pilosae - Fagetum community in two variations: typical and fern.
The study proves that Abies alba grows in a typical way in the Luzulo pilosae - Fagetum community and requires only the monitoring of its natural germination.


Herpetofauna of the Przedborski Landscape Park


The research was carried out in the years 2010 - 2011 in the area of the Przedborski Landscape Park (PLP). The park is located in Łódź and Świętokrzyskie Provinces (Central Poland). It covers an area of 16.553 ha and comprises 5 nature reserves (Bukowa Góra, Czarna Rózga, Oleszno, Murawy Dobromierskie, and Piskorzeniec). The largest river in the PLP is the Czarna. The park is characterized by a high environmental and geological diversity. Mild hills are usually overgrown with forests. Valleys are cultivated.
The research included inventory of amphibians and reptiles, breeding ecology of chosen species and identification of threats, along with determination of necessary protection measures.
The following species were found: the Great crested newt Triturus cristatus LAUR., the Smooth newt Lissotriton vulgaris L., the European fire-bellied toad Bombina bombina L., the Common toad Bufo bufo L., the European tree frog Hyla arborea L., the Common frog Rana temporaria L., the Moor frog Rana arvalis NILSS., the Pool frog Pelophylax lessonae CAM., the Edible frog Pelophylax kl. esculentus L., the Marsh frog Pelophylax ridibundus PALL., the Sand lizard Lacerta agilis L., the Viviparous lizard Zootoca vivipara JACQUIN, the Slow worm Anguis fragilis L., the Grass snake Natrix natrix L. and the Common European adder Vipera berus L. The research included breeding ecology of the Common toad Bufo bufo L. and the Common frog Rana temporaria L.
The main danger for the herpetofauna is direct human impact in the form of car traffic: migrating batrachofauna is run over by cars. The highest mortality was observed in the road sections between the villages of Oleszno and Wólka and between the villages of Wojciechów and Przedbórz. In other surveyed sections the number of dead amphibians was insignificant, with a higher number of dead specimens near culverts. Another type of unfavorable impact are changes in water relations, i.e. decreasing water level and drying out of water bodies. Moreover, the following types of negative impact were observed: pollution of water, grassland fires, pressure from urbanization and tourism.


Bats (Chiroptera) in sacred buildings
in the Stobrawa Landscape Park (Opole Province)


Controls of sacred buildings (i.e. churches and chapels) are a common practice while making a bat inventory on a selected area. Some bat species often use or even prefer such roosts for a nursery colony (Myotis emarginatus, Rhinolophus hipposideros, Myotis myotis, Plecotus austriacus). Nevertheless surveys of a larger number of sacred buildings are sparse in Polish literature. In Opole Province data about summer shelters of bats in buildings have been obtained only from its southern part (Opawskie Mts.). We present the first data about summer roosts of bats in the northern part of the Opole region that were obtained while checking 29 churches. Four bat species were registered altogether: Myotis myotis, Eptesicus serotinus, Plecotus auritus and P. austriacus. For three of the species (except P. auritus) nursery colonies have been found. In contrast to the other lowland parts of the country, high percentage of occupied buildings was registered (31%).


A case of the Smoleń reserve - new proposals
and possibilities for conservation


Small area of the Smoleń reserve (4.32 ha) which is divided into two parts makes it difficult to accomplish the goals of appropriate forest management as well as protect the ruins of a XIVcentury gothic castle owned by the Pileckis family. Strong wind in 2010 and earlier the severe winter of 2009 both resulted in heavy damage to the tree stand. The ruins are in bad state of repair and make a real danger for visitors. Meanwhile, unique natural values which are in need of urgent protection have been documented in the surroundings of the Smoleń reserve.
In the case of the reserve a change of borders will not stop the progress of damage processes which take place in the ruins of the castle and will not break the increase of synanthropization in the plant cover. Thus, the establishment of a new, bigger reserve (50 ha) named "Języcznik" (after the Polish name for the Hart's Tongue) and its 50 meter-wide buffer zone instead of the existing Smoleń reserve is suggested. In that way, the majority of isolated populations of the Hart's Tongue Phyllitis scolopendrium will be protected and the potential habitat of that fern - Phyllitido - Aceretum will be saved from extinction. Alongside the tree stands in their optimal stage of development, also other young phases of the premature stages which represent particular syntaxonomic units and other tree stands which were planted according to habitat demands should be found within the borders of the reserve.
The other part of the Wodąca Valley, together with the existing Smoleń reserve, the Oparnica Rock and a few rocks located out of the compact forest should become a natural-landscape complex named after the valley "Dolina Wodąca". Such a solution will provide a chance for full protection of the most important natural and cultural values, i.e. exclusively high biodiversity of flora and fauna, numerous and important complexes of archaeological sites, caves, as well as picturesque monadnocks. Moreover, it will let us save valuable ruins of the castle in Smoleń which can be and should be used for touristic purposes.


Short floristic, faunistic and micobiotic notes

New localities of Allium ursinum L. on the border
of the Tatras and on Podtatrze


Allium ursinum is under legal protection in Poland. Most frequently it is found in foothills and in lower parts of mountains, although there are some stands of the species scattered on lowlands. The species frequently occupies humid, clay soils rich in mineral sources. So far in the region of the Tatra Mts. only two stands were recorded: one on the Polish side - Zadnia Kopka, and another one in Slovakia - probably erroneously noted in the Sucha Sielnicka Valley as well as in the Podtatrze Region - "Chałubińscy Forest". In the years 2004 - 2009, during fieldwork, new stands of the species were found (Fig. 1). The newly-discovered populations are located at the altitude from 870 to 1020 m. They are mainly situated along streams on soil with pH 6.3 - 7.5. The size of the population is estimated at from over a dozen to several hundreds of specimens. The most frequent accompanying species are, among others: Acer pseudoplatanus, Alnus incana, Dentaria glanulosa, Geum urbanum, Oxalis acetosella, Primula elatior, Urtica dioica and Aegopodium podagraria. Allium ursinum is a remnant of former beech forests of the Fagetalia sylvaticae order which once grew in the valley of Zakopane. The exploration of new stands of Allium ursinum adds to our knowledge of the range of this species and the species composition of the lower zone mountain forests of the Tatra Mts. and the Podtatrze region.


New records of rare, interesting and protected beetle species (Coleoptera)
of Kampinos National Park's fauna


In this paper we provide new data on the occurrence of 30 rare and interesting species of Coleoptera from the families Carabidae, Histeridae, Staphylinidae, Scarabaeidae, Cleridae, Cucujidae, Zopheridae, Meloidae and Chrysomelidae, in the Kampinos National Park. Agonum duftschmidi, Trichocellus placidus, Platylomalus complanatus, Quedius humeralis, Sepedophilus nigripennis, S. obtusus, Liogluta alpestris, Atheta oblita, Meotica filiformis and Pediacus depressus are newly reported in the Mazovian Lowland. Four species: Platylomalus complanatus, Aegialia rufa, Chaetopteroplia segetum segetum and Lytta vesicatoria are listed on the Polish Red List of Threatened Animals. Two species: Cucujus cinnaberinus and Protaetia aeruginosa are protected and are listed on the European Red List of Saproxylic Beatles.



Incorrect information on introduction of Pieninian-Alpine hybrids
of the Apollo butterfly in
the Pieniny Mts


In the last decades of the 20th century, the population of Parnassius apollo in the Pieniny was disappearing fast. Therefore, in 1991, on the basis of native subspecies of Parnassius apollo frenkenbergeri SLABY, a restoration project was undertaken. Collected caterpillars were put to captive breeding where some males were crossed with females of unknown subspecies originating from the Alps.
For the safety of the native subspecies, the bred animals were transferred from Wroclaw (Silesia) to Krościenko in the vicinity of the Pieniny National Park. There, the captive population was supported by individuals collected in the Slovak part of the Pieniny (agreed in accordance with the CIITES rules). Imagines hatched in captivity were released in designated and previously prepared places in the Pieniny National Park. The reintroduction project was controlled by the Directorate of the Pieniny National Park, and supervised by the head of the scientific project - prof. Zbigniew Witkowski.
In recent years two publications contained suggestions that in the planned population recovery of the apollo butterfly in the Pieniny, the Pieninian-Alpine hybrids from the captive breeding in Wrocław were introduced (MASŁOWSKI 2005, DĄBROWSKI 2010). This information - in our opinion - is caused by a misreading of data from other publications, as well as the lack of knowledge concerning population recovery and biology of Parnassius apollo on the part of its authors.

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