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PNRP 31(3) za 2012 r.

 

The role of lichens in nature and the life of man

SUMMARY 

The following paper discusses the role of lichens (Fungi lichenisati). Those organisms play a role both in nature and in the daily lives of the man. This peculiar group of organisms diverges from their higher organized "relatives'' - that is higher plants - on almost every account, and still play a number of significant tasks. The serve as the indispensable element of forest ecosystems, both enriching them in terms of the number of species and serving as water reservoirs in case of a prolonged drought. They guarantee the suitable microclimate in forest units and they also contribute to the stimulation of the development of vascular plants. Additionally, they give refuge to numerous species of invertebrates. However, nature is not the only beneficiary of lichens. Since ancient times humans have been taking advantage of their extraordinary nutrition, healing and industrial value (the manufacture of dyes) and in recent times, in monitoring the state of atmospheric pollution with poisoning compounds of sulfur.

 

The borderland locality of the acidophilous oak forest
Calamagrostio arundinaceae - Quercetum petraeae
(HARTM. 1934) SCAM. et PASS. 1959
in the Kozienicki Landscape Park
 

SUMMARY

The acidophilous oak forest Calamagrostio arundinaceae - Quercetum petaraeae (HARTM. 1934) SCAM. et PASS. 1959 corresponding to the following types of forest habitats - fresh mixed coniferous forest (BM鈍), fresh mixed deciduous forest (LM鈍) and less frequently also as moist mixed deciduous forest (LMw), moist mixed coniferous forest (BMw) or poorer variants of fresh deciduous forest (L鈍). It is located in a continuous range in south-western Poland, which is under the influence of the temperate Atlantic climate. The eastern boundary of the forest unit is difficult to delineate. The objective of this work is to demonstrate the biological characteristics of a site of acidophilic oak forest described for the first time in the Puszcza Kozienicka. The studied area is located in the northern part of the forest, in the Forest Superintendence Kozienice, Forest Circle Kozienice, Forest Intendence Cztery Kopce. The study was conducted in the 2010 growing season. The total area covered by the acidophilous oak forest unit, calculated on the basis of a digital map, is approximately 6.70 ha. The sessile oak Quercus petraea is the dominant tree with a minor share of the Scots pine Pinus sylvestris. The trees in the studied area are about 85 years old, reach an average height of 23 meters, and are of quality class II. Among the forest-forming species, only the sessile oak Quercus petraea reveals a natural replacement rate. The herb layer coverage is 70% to 75%. The moss layer is not well developed and remains under 5% of floor coverage. The entire area occupied by the studied association was classified as a fresh mixed deciduous forest.
The general floristic, phytocenotical, and habitat characteristics of the forest community discussed in this work show that it is quite similar to forest patches identified in Wielkopolska as a degenerated stage of Calamagrostio arundinaceae - Quercetum petraeae typicum unit. However, further floristic, phytosociological, and habitat research should be conducted to find the final answer to the question whether the studied forest community is an autogenic patch of the acidophilous oak forest Calamagrostio arundinaceae - Quercetum petraeae unit growing beyond the continuous range of this unit or perhaps are dealing with anthropogenic transformation of the deciduous oak-linden-hornbeam forest Tilio - Carpinetum?

  

Dragonflies (Odonata) of the nature reserve "毒ódlisko Skrzypowe" 

SUMMARY

The "毒ódlisko Skrzypowe" nature reserve (South Pomeranian Lake District, NW Poland) protects the fragment of the valley of a small river with naturally valuable springs of helocren type. In 2006, ten dragonfly species were recorded. They were absent in the springs which are very rarely inhabited by dragonflies in lowland Poland which is typical of helocrenes. The fauna of the River Kaczynka comprised in equal shares of rheophiles (with strong quantitative dominance) and eurytopes. The most valuable element of the river was the autochthonic population of Cordulegaster boltonii. The reserve is situated in the center of gravity of its range in Poland, encompassing the area from the Forests of Lower Silesia to the Dobiegniewskie Lake District and the Drawska Plain. This is a refuge of this species of the supranational importance, especially on the background of its disappearance in eastern Germany.

 

Longhorn beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) of Poleski National Park 

SUMMARY

The paper summarizes the irregular data gathered during the last 18 years of studies on longhorn beetles in the Polesie National Park (PNP). 67 species of Cerambycidae (ca. 35% of the Polish fauna) have been recorded. Dominant species are: Rhagium inquisitor, R. mordax, Stictoleptura maculicornis, S. rubra, Leptura quadrifasciata, Stenurella melanura, Strangalia attenuata, Spondylis buprestoides, Agapanthia villosoviridescens. The following species are the most valuable from the faunistic point of view: Ergates faber, Grammoptera ustulata, Lepturobosca virens, Necydalis major, Leioderes kollari, Chlorophorus herbstii, Mesosa curculionoides, M. nebulosa, Lamia textor, Monochamus urussovii, Pogonocherus hispidulus, Exocentrus punctipennis, Saperda perforata, S. similis, Stenostola ferrea, Menesia bipunctata, Agapanthia violacea, Phytoecia affinis (Table 1). Among the representatives of 11 zoogeographical elements prevail palaearctic species (35.4%); relatively abundant "warm" elements (subpontomediterranean, subpontic, submediterranean - altogether 16.7%) and low share of "cold" ones (boreomontane, boreal - 4.6%) point to the distinct southern influence on the area (Table 2). However, the presence of Siberian Monochamus urussovii and boreomontane Lepturobosca virens in the PNP suggests that it has, or recently had, connections with the taiga. The best represented (16 species) of 15 recognized range elements is Pacific-Atlantic have been denoted (Table 3).
Host plants have been identified for 35 species, including very rarely observed connection of Strangalia attenuata to Tilia cordata. Pinus sylvestris and Quercus robur were the most frequently infested trees on which respectively 7 and 6 species of Cerambycidae developed. For 14 anthophilic species imaginal food-plants - mainly of the Apiaceae, Compositae and Rosaceae families - have been specified (Table 1).
Problems of protection of that group of beetles in PNP have been discussed, with (among others) the emphasis on areas with the most valuable species concentration, and recommendations as to the concrete actions aiming at the preservation of saproxylic and open-land thermophilic species.

  

Fish Fauna of Kirsna River (ㄊna River tributary) 

SUMMARY

Investigation of fish species distribution and abundance in the Kirsna River (25 km long, right-bank tributary of the ㄊna River) was carried out between the years 2007 - 2009 and in 2012. Catches were conducted at 7 sites (Table 1), using an electrofishing (DC generator), unified method. A total of 925 specimens, representing 19 species were identified (Table 2). The most abundant species were: roach (26.5%), sunbleak (21.0%), and dace (12.0%), the most frequent were pike (73.3% of sites), roach (66.7%), dace (60.0%), and minnow (53.3%). The least frequently caught species were burbot, tench and Prussian carp (each with 6.7% frequency). The dominant reproductive guilds were phytolithophils (44.8%) and phytophils (27.8%). In terms of habitat preferences eurytopic species were most abundant (47% of all captured species, 65% of dominance), then rheophils species (47 and 35%, respectively) (Table 2). In terms of threat categories and degrees of IUCN threat specified by WITKOWSKI et al. (2009) three vulnerable (VU) species, two near threatened (NT), one conservation dependent (CD) and 12 species of least concern (LC) were recorded from the Kirsna River. The vulnerable species were burbot, brook lamprey, and bullhead. Prussian carp was the only non-native fish species recorded in the Kirsna River. A negative impact of dam, which prevented fish migration from the ㄊna River, was evident.

 

Herpetofauna of the Gaj nature reserve
and of the Chorzewo ponds
 

SUMMARY

The survey was carried out in the Gaj nature reserve, Chorzewo ponds and adjacent areas (total area of over 1030 ha). The research area located in the western part of the 安i皻okrzyskie voivodeship (central Poland). Wavy hills of the area are covered with dominating forest communities, fields and plants. Bogs are located in the vicinity of the ponds. The Gaj nature reserve protects rare plants, e.g. Cypripedium calceolus L., Lesser Butterfly-orchid (Platanthera bifolia (L.) RICH.), Lesser Periwinkle (Vinca minor L.) and other species.
The observations were carried out in the years 2011 - 2012. They included inventory of amphibians and reptiles, along with breeding ecology of chosen species. The following species were found Great Crested Newt Triturus cristatus LAUR., Smooth Newt Lissotriton vulgaris L., Common Spadefoot Toad Pelobates fuscus LAUR., Common Toad Bufo bufo L., European Green Toad Pseudepidalea viridis LAUR., European Tree Frog Hyla arborea L., Pool Frog Pelophylax lessonae CAM., Edible Frog Pelophylax kl. esculentus L., Common Frog Rana temporaria L., Moor Frog Rana arvalis NILSS., Sand Lizard Lacerta agilis L., Viviparous Lizard Zootoca vivipara JACQUIN, Slow Worm Anguis fragilis L., Grass Snake Natrix natrix L. and Common European Adder Vipera berus L. The research included breeding ecology of the Pool frog, Edible frog and Common frog.
The main danger for herpetofauna results from unfavorable changes of water relationships, which causes decreasing water levels and drying out of water bodies. The other types of direct impact are eutrophication of ponds and deadly collisions of migrating amphibians with cars.

  

Herpetofauna of the Pieczyska nature reserve 

SUMMARY

The peat nature reserve "Pieczyska" (total area of 40.84 ha) protect peat bogs and wet forest communities (humid mixed coniferous forest, fresh mixed forest and alder carr). It is located in the south part of the 安i皻okrzyskie Province (central Poland) and in the area of the Nadnidzia雟ki Landscape Park. The terrain relief is diverse, Cretaceous, Tertiary and Quaternary rocks are dominating here. A few kinds of soil are occurring and very little watercourses and ponds. The observations were carried out in the years 2011 - 2012. They included inventory of amphibians and reptiles, along with breeding ecology of chosen species.
The following species were found Smooth Newt Lissotriton vulgaris L., Common Spadefoot Toad Pelobates fuscus LAUR., Common Toad Bufo bufo L., European Green Toad Pseudepidalea viridis LAUR., European Tree Frog Hyla arborea L., Common Frog Rana temporaria L., Moor Frog Rana arvalis NILSS., Sand Lizard Lacerta agilis L., Viviparous Lizard Zootoca vivipara JACQUIN, Slow Worm Anguis fragilis L., Grass Snake Natrix natrix L. and Common European Adder Vipera berus L. The research included breeding ecology of the Common toad, European Green Toad, Moor Frog and Common frog.
The main herpetofauna results from unfavorable changes of water relationships, what causes decreasing level of a water level and drying out of water bodies. The other types of direct impact are deadly collisions of migrating fauna with cars, human presence, rubbishing, mushrooming and pasturage.

 

SHORT FLORISTIC, FAUNISTIC AND MICOBIOTIC NOTES

  

The locality of the Round-headed Rampion (Phyteuma orbiculare L.)
in the Niecka Nidzia雟ka Basin
 

SUMMARY

In June 2009 during field research on the wet meadows in the vicinity of M這dzawy Du瞠, near Pi鎍zów, several individuals of Phyteuma orbiculare were encountered. This species is strictly protected in Poland. Earlier it has been recorded in the Sudety Mountains, the Carpathians and on the area of southern uplands. The nearest known locality is Wodzis豉w, 1986. This article completes the knowledge about Spherical devil's claw national distribution. Localities known to have existed in the past were: Toru vicinity and Mazury Lake District. In the Niecka Nidzia雟ka Basin, it was noticed in Piaski, Zakrzów, Wojs豉wice, 1999 and in Wodzis豉w, 1986. In the Miechów Height also found in Rzeczysta near Poja這wice (year 1920). Locality found by author completes the knowledge about Round- headed Rampion's claw distribution in the Nida Valley and central Poland. Plants grew on wet meadow taken up in "Agri-environmental Programme" but mowing requirement from 15th June seems to be dangerous (it is too early).

 

The first locality
of the Northern Emerald Somatochlora arctica (ZETTERSTEDT, 1840)
(Odonata: Corduliidae) in the Opole region (Southwest Poland) with commentary to the list
of dragonflies of Opole voivodeship
 

SUMMARY

The authors present the data on the first record of Northern Emerald Somatochlora arctica (ZETTERSTEDT, 1840) in the Opole region. The total number of 7 larvae was sampled on 8th of September 2012 in the forest canal located in the "Kamieniec" Nature Reserve. The canals are completely covered in moss of the genus Sphagnum LINNAEUS, 1758. This is a fourth. modern site of this species in the Polish part of Upper Silesia. The authors present a list of 61 dragonfly species reported so far in the Opole region and a list of 59 recently recorded species, which represent 80.8% of the Polish odonatofauna. The presence of: Sympecma paedisca (BRAUER, 1877), Coenagrion lunulatum (CHARPENTIER, 1840), Aeshna subarctica WALKER, 1908 and A. viridis EVERSMANN, 1836 in Opole region is highly probable. The assumption is based on the fact that these species were recorded in neighboring voivodeships.


 
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