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Strona główna arrow Parki Narodowe i Rezerwaty Przyrody

PNRP 31(4) za 2012 r.


Water mites (Hydrachnidia) of the "¬ródlisko Skrzypowe" nature reserv


Water mite fauna encountered in small rivers and springs is usually highly specific and different from water mite fauna typical for stagnant waters. The fauna inhabiting springs depends on the size and character of seepage spring area. In "¬ródlisko Skrzypowe" nature reserve a study of water mites was conducted in 2006 (April, May and July). A total number of 167 specimens were collected; they represented 16 species. Dominant species, which were also the most frequent, were the following: Hygrobates setosus, Lebertia oblonga and Hygrobates longipalpis. Sixteen water mite species were encountered in the Kaczynka River, and the following were classified as dominant: Hygrobates setosus, Lebertia oblonga, H. longipalpis, Sperchon clupeifer and Lebertia ineaqualis. The presence of three species was recorded in springs: Paratchyas palustris, Wettina podagrica, and Arrenurus connicus. The first of these was distinctly dominant. Among species encountered in springs, Parathyas palustris was a species typical for helocrenes and was recorded only in that environment, whereas Wettina podagrica and Arrenurus connicus, which represented stagnophilous crenophiles, were encountered in micro-limnocrenes in spring seepage areas and ice-marginal lakes of the Kaczynka River. The river was inhabited mainly by reophilous and reobiontic species, which were the most abundant in environments associated with the river current.



Water beetles (Coleoptera) of the "¬ródlisko Skrzypowe" nature reserve 


The fauna of aquatic beetles was studied in the "¬ródlisko Skrzypowe" nature reserve, located in the mesoregion of the Dobiegniewskie Lake District (Polish: Pojezierze Dobiegniewskie). Faunistic material was collected from 11 sites established on Kaczynka River and in helocrene springs. In collected samples of 28 beetle species were identified, representing 7 families: Dytiscidae, Hydrophilidae, Gyrinidae, Hydraenidae, Helophoridae, Haliplidae and Noteridae. The most important family in the species structure were the Dytiscidae, whereas with respect to abundance the most important were the Hydrophilidae. Material collected from the river turned out to not be as abundant as that collected from helocrene springs, but species diversification in both types of sites was similar and equaled 16 and 18 species respectively. Only 6 species were encountered in both types of habitats. Dominant species were Anacaena limbata Ilybius fuliginosus and Hydrobius fuscipes. In the river, distinctly dominant species included Ilybius fuliginosus, Laccophilus hyalinus and Anacaena limbata, whereas in helocrene springs dominant species included Anacaena limbata and Hydrobius fuscipes.
Beetle fauna of the nature reserve was represented by three synecological groups: reophiles, tyrphophiles and eurytopic species, associated especially with eutrophic lentic waters and small water bodies. The presence of crenobionts and crenophiles was recorded in springs situated in the reserve; they constituted the most typical faunistic element. A significant share of tyrphophiles was observed, which reflected the limnological character of springs and a strong connection between the springs and the nearby small water bodies from which the fauna migrated. A distinct connection between springs and other aquatic environments reflected by the shape of faunistic relationships among aquatic beetles, as well as the presence of rare species: Gyrinus suffriani, Rhantus incognitus and Hydroporus memnonius pointed out the necessity to protect not only the springs themselves, but also the surrounding landscape.


Moths (Lepidoptera: Heterocera) of Bolimowski Landscape Park 


The research on moths in Bolimowski Landscape Park started in 2009 and concluded in 2012. Insects were caught on fifteen fixed monitoring sites which represented the following habitats in the park: meadows, tall herb communities, peatbogs clusters, mixed forests, broadleaved forests, riparian forests, orchards, gardens, fallows and sand grasses. The research was conducted inter alia in four natural reserves: "Rawka", "Polana Siwica", "Kopanicha" and "Puszcza Mariańska". Overall, 821 species were reported including 510 species that were seen in the park for the first time. Among the new ones, 130 species are simultaneously new to the Łódzkie voivodeship and 59 to the Mazovieckie voivodeship. The collected samples included a never before seen in Poland species from Tortricidae family - Cnephasia pumicana, 3 species from "Red List of Threatened Animals in Poland" - Phyllodesma tremulifolia, Drymonia velitaris, Spatalia argentina and also 33 species very rarely seen in Poland i.e. not observed after 1960 or observed in 1 - 2 voivodeships. The most rare taxons in this group include: Eriocrania chrysolepidella ZELLER, 1851 - Eriocraniidae, Agonopterix capreolella (ZELLER, 1839) - Depressariidae, Lypusa maurella (DENIS et SCHIFFERMÜLLER, 1775) - Amphisbatidae, Hypatopa inunctella (ZELLER, 1839) - Blastobasidae, Coleophora cornutella HERRICH-SCHÄFFER, 1861 - Coleophoridae and Aethes cnicana (WESTWOOD, 1854), Cochylidia moguntiana (RÖESLER, 1864), Cnephasia alticolana (HERRICH-SCHÄFFER, 1851), Cnephasia pasiuana (HÜBNER, 1799), Bactra lacteana (CARADJA, 1916), Eucosma conterminana (GUENÉE, 1845), Gypsonoma sociana (HAWORTH, 1811), Ancylis diminutana (HAWORTH, 1811), Cydia coniferana (SAXESEN, 1840), Grapholita discretana (WOCKE, 1861) - Tortricidae. On the basis of the literature and conducted research 959 species of moths were confirmed to exist so far in the Bolimowski Landscape Park, which represents 32% of the national fauna of this group of insects.


Herpetofauna of the Szaniecki Landscape Park 


The research was carried out in the years 2011 - 2012 in the area of the Szaniecki Landscape Park (10 915 ha) and in its protective zone (12 859 ha). It included the inventory of amphibians and reptiles, along with breeding ecology of species.
The Park is characterized by a high environmental and geological diversity (e.g. karst phenomena). Mild hills are usually overgrown with xerotermic grasslands. The area of the Park is partially wet and covers meadows, forests, peat bogs, agricultural lands and towns.
The following species were found Great Crested Newt Triturus cristatus LAUR., Smooth Newt Lissotriton vulgaris L., European Fire-bellied Toad Bombina bombina L., Common Spadefoot Toad Pelobates fuscus LAUR., Common Toad Bufo bufo L., European Green Toad Pseudepidalea viridis LAUR., Pool Frog Pelophylax lessonae CAM., Edible Frog Pelophylax kl. esculentus L., Marsh Frog Pelophylax ridibundus PALL., Common Frog Rana temporaria L., Moor Frog Rana arvalis NILSS., Sand Lizard Lacerta agilis L., Viviparous Lizard Zootoca vivipara JACQUIN, Slow Worm Anguis fragilis L., Grass Snake Natrix natrix L., Smooth Snake Coronella austriaca LAUR. and Common European Adder Vipera berus L. The research included breeding ecology of the Pool Frog and the Common Frog.
Major threats result from grassland fires and deadly collisions of migrating amphibians with cars. However, the most unfavorable changes concern decreasing water levels and drying out of water bodies.




Contribution to the study of macromycetes
of the "¬ródlisko Skrzypowe" nature reserve (NW Poland)


The paper presents the results of mycological researches carried out in the "¬ródlisko Skrzypowe" nature reserve (NW Poland) in 2006. 131 macromycete species have been recorded in total: 19 species of Ascomycota and 112 species of Basidiomycota. Two of the species are included in the red list of the macrofungi in Poland (Hymenochaete tabacina and Tremella foliacea). Analysis of bioecological groups of macrofungi indicated dominance of saprotrophic fungi (ca 72%), followed by mycorrhizal (ca 21%) and parasitic fungi (ca 7%).




Białowieża National Park - Prestige and Obligation
- The outcome of the world heritage status and European diploma of protected areas


The World Heritage Committee and the Council of Europe acknowledged the unique values of nature of the Białowieża National Park enlisting the Park as a World Heritage Property and granting the European Diploma of Protected Areas. By doing so they set very high standards for the management authorities. They monitor the state of conservation and management of the Site and expect that the government of Poland will take their recommendations into account. The main message from those recommendations is that the experts treat the Białowieża National Park and its surrounding as one ecosystem and they expect it to be managed in that way, disregarding the administrative boundaries. Experts of UNESCO, IUCN and the Council of Europe are unanimous in that that the areas surrounding the national park should be managed in a way that the unique values of the park are not threatened. The authorities of the park strive to fulfill as many recommendations as possible. However, not all of them are within their competences. The long-term protection plan for the park has been prepared and awaits its acceptance by the Ministry of the Environment. The application for the enlargement of the World Heritage Site has been prepared in cooperation with the State Forest Administration and National Park "Białowieża Forest" in Belarus. Taking long procedures in the World Heritage Centre into account, the application may be discussed at the World Heritage Committee Session in 2014.


Training of guides for work in valuable natural areas
(Experience from Białowieża)


For over 50 years the Association of Tourist Guides in frame of Polish Tourist and Countrylovers Association in Białowieża has been developing the model of training candidates, as well the supplementary training for licensed guides. Apart from the 285 training hours and topics required by the Bill on tourist guiding, 100 additional hours were added. During the training programme in parallel with the history of Białowieża Forest and Białowieża National Park their natural environment, vegetation, flora and fauna as well as nature conservation in Poland and in the world are being discussed. Special attention is given to practical knowledge (identification in the field) about trees, plants, animals and fungi in all seasons of the year. Optimally, the training course should take 9 months and begin in autumn (e.e. in the end of September) and is ended in the beginning of summer (June) which enables the participants to acquaint themselves with seasonal variability, characteristic of temperate broadleaved forests. The difference between managed forests and natural originated forests is a different matter. For those members who possess the guiding license, supplementary classes are organized. The lecturers in the course for candidates as well as during supplementary classes are experienced guides, employees of Białowieża National Park, State Forests and scientists.

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