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PNRP 32(2) – 2013 r.


Dragonflies (Odonata) of the nature reserve "安idwie"


Authors analyze the data on dragonflies collected in the year 2010 in the nature reserve "安idwie" (north-western Poland, the Szczecin Coastal Region, 53º33'N, 14º22'E) during hydrobiological studies and studies on Hydrachnidia parasitizing on adult Odonata. 32 dragonfly species were found. The reserve protects two valuable eutrophic lakes of a macrophyte type, with typical fauna (Leucorrhinia caudalis among others). The complex of small water bodies, ditches and marshes surrounding the lakes is valuable as well. The nature reserve "安idwie" is a refuge area of many species which are still rather common in Poland, however, they are threatened to various degrees in Western Europe. For instance, 19 species from the Red List of Threatened Species of Germany and/or its federal states situated in the north-east of the country. From the zoogeographic point of view, the records of Aeshna affinis (on the northern edge of its range) and Sympecma paedisca (on the western edge of the compact part of the range) are interesting. The site of S. paedisca suggests the possibility of its presence in the neighboring areas of Germany, especially in the vicinity of Pasewalk.


Contribution to the knowledge of wasps and bees (Hymenoptera, Aculeata)
of Poleski National Park in Poland


Poleski National Park was established in 1990 in eastern part of Poland, in the region known as Polesie. The park protects a well preserved marsh and peat bog ecosystem typical for the region. The characteristic features of the park are dry sandy habitats with psamophilous vegetation located among the wetlands. The occurrence of such various habitats results in remarkable flora and fauna, which consists of boreal, palaearctic, as well as central or south European species.
Wasps and bees have never been subject to separate studies in the park. There is only scarce information published about some species of bumblebees and single bees present in the Park.
The paper presents results of random collecting activities in the area. The specimens were collected using the water pan traps (‘Moericke-traps') as well as entomological net during the years 1996 - 2011. A total of 147 species of aculeate hymenopterans were recorded in the parkrepresenting the following families: Chrysididae (12 species), Sapygidae (1), Scoliidae (1), Tiphiidae (2), Pompilidae (6), Vespidae (12), Sphecidae (5), Crabronidae (49), Colletidae (9), Andrenidae (3), Halictidae (17), Melittidae (4), Megachilidae (15) and Anthophoridae (11). This represents approximately 14% of all Aculeata species known in Poland. This is a rather large number considering the casual way of collecting specimens.
Among the species recorded as many as 31 were not known to be present in the Podlasie region, and another 43 were known to be present in the region, however, only in Bia這wie瘸 Primeval Forest (including Bia這wie瘸 National Park). As for nature conservation, the most interesting species recorded during the studies were: Ammobates punctatus, Biastes brevicornis, Crossocerus congener, Epeoloides coecutiens, Hylaeus gracilicornis, Nitela borealis, Oxybelus variegatus, Rhopalum gracile, Stelis odontopyga, S. ornatula and Systropha curvicornis. They are rarely recorded in Poland and are redlisted. The presence of rather numerous cleptoparasitic bee species indicates a stable character of the park's Aculeata fauna. Most species of wasps and bees recorded during the studies make their nests in sandy soil; their protection depends on maintaining open areas with scarce plant cover. Another interesting group of wasp species are those nesting in reed stems, e.g.: Anoplius caviventris, Pemphredon fabricii, and Rhopalum gracile. Their presence indicates a good state of the habitats occupied by those species.
The preliminary results presented in the paper suggest the high diversity of wasps and bees of the Park; further research should add another 250 - 300 species to the group. It is hoped that the inventory of aculeate hymenopterans of Poleski National Park will continue, and that it will reveal species earlier unknown in Poland.


Fruit flies (Diptera; Tephritidae) of the Polish part
of Bia這wie瘸 Primeval Forest


The study of the fauna structure in the Bia這wie瘸 Primeval Forest is interesting due to its natural ecological systems and little interference of man. So far, 45 species of Tephritidae have been recorded in the Polish part of the Bia這wie瘸 Primeval Forest.
Fruit flies, from the Tephritidae family present in Poland, feed mainly on plants from the Asteraceae family and they prefer open grounds. There are only few species which, in the larval stage, feed on tree, bush fruit or mine leaves of plants occurring in a woodland ground cover. Therefore, they are so few in forests, despite the fact that it is their natural environment.
The fruit flies concentrate on plants along forest paths, on herbaceous plants growing along rivers flowing through forests and in gaps and cleared parts in the canopy, as well as all the localities where their host plants live.
They become more numerous in glades and their peripheries, sandy areas in forests which are formed in places where timber has been stacked and in extensively used meadows close to settlements. Species rarely collected in Poland e.g. Acinia corniculata, Oxyna nebulosa, Chaetorellia jaceae, Orellia falcata concentrate on such meadows. Up until now, no species of fruit flies distinguishing the area of the Forest from the other lowlands in Poland have been discovered, however, the presence of such unique taxons in the area should not be ruled out.
Among the groups of insects that have been investigated, the share of the open ground species in the whole fauna of the Forest is varied but they seldom constitute the majority. Such a deviation from the norm concerns the fruit flies; the share of non-forest species constitutes almost 90% of the whole. Some of them are associated with herbaceous plants (e.g. Urophora solstitialis, Sphenella marginata, Tephritis hyoscyami, Terellia ruficauda, T. winthemi, Xyphosia miliaria) growing by rivers, similarly to the species present in woodland ground covers, they constitute a natural element of the Forest. The rest requires meadows or xerophilous plants which occur in bigger number in habitats connected with man's activity. Fruit flies enrich the whole fauna in the Forest and do not compete with typical forest elements (e.g. flies living in dead wood) as they occupy a completely different ecological niche. Therefore, it seems reasonable to mow large glades including the ones in the Palace Park (Park Pa豉cowy) and Bia這wie瘸 Glade (Polana Bia這wieska) in the forefield of the Bia這wie瘸 Forest, or at least to maintain its mosaic character. However, the meadows by the Narewka in Pogorzelce which have been extensively used for a long time, are the most plentiful in fruit flies. When considering fruit flies, a forest succession does not seem to be reasonable in those areas as a young forest would be much poorer in species and less valuable than the meadows which have been used for over a hundred years. Only three xerothermic species belonging to Tephritidae have been found in the investigated area so far: Chaeterellia acrolophi, Terellia virens and Urophora affinis, but they occurred only on the peripheries of the Forest in Siemianówka and in the psammophilous sward grasslands. Location of the Forest in the north-eastern Poland and, more importantly, the lack of a proper subsoil and a biotope causes other thermophilic species not to be found there e.g. Terellia colon (MEIGEN, 1826), T. ceratocera (HENDEL, 1913), Urophora cuspidata (MEIGEN, 1826) connected with Centaurea scabiosa. However, it cannot be ruled out that they will inhabit the area in the near or further future, if the available habitats favour development of such plants because the existence of hosts is the main factor determining the presence of fruit flies.

Variability of temperature and ice phenomena on κbsko
and Gardno lakes (S這wi雟ki National Park)


The work presents the results of the observations of thermal and ice conditions of the two largest lakes in the S這wi雟ki National Park, κbsko and Gardno, over the course of four decades (1971 - 2010). The data collected by the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management (IMiGW) allowed for an analysis of changes in both these values. The average annual water temperature in the period referred to above was established at 9.2°C for κbsko Lake and 8.8°C for Gardno Lake. A 0.2°C ∙ dec-1 rise was recorded for both κbsko and Gardno lakes. An analysis of particular ice profiles revealed a delay in the onset of ice phenomena in water of 0.9 days ∙ dec-1 and in the formation of ice cover of 0.4 days ∙ dec-1, and the acceleration of the decline of ice cover of 0.1 days ∙ dec-1 and of the ice phenomena of 0.6 days ∙ dec-1 for κbsko Lake and 0.4 days ∙ dec-1 for Gardno Lake. The maximum thickness of ice has decreased by 0.15 cm dec-1 for κbsko Lake and 0.2 cm ∙ dec-1 for Gardno Lake. The number of days with ice cover has also decreased by 0.63 days ∙ dec-1 for κbsko Lake and 0.95 days ∙ dec-1 for Gardno Lake.

Physicochemical properties of soils in the vicinity
of the village of Pasterka in Sto這we Góry National Park


The article presents the physical and chemical properties of soils in the vicinity of the village of Pasterka in Sto這we Góry National Park. Three profiles of soil were analyzed and classified to appropriate groups in accordance with the Polish Soil Systematic. The study showed that soils developed on sandy and loamy substratum. For the purposes of this study the following factors have been determined: granulometric composition, soil pH, hydrolytic acidity, exchangeable acidity and exchangeable aluminum, salinity and exchangeable alkaline cations: Ca, Mg, K, Na. These soils are characterized by mostly highly acidic pH, and its value increases with the depth of the soil profile. The content of alkali cations in the soils studied can be arranged in the following series of decreasing values Ca+2>Mg2+>K+>Na+.




A new locality of snowdrop Galanthus nivalis L.
in the 安i皻okrzyskie Mountains


Snowdrop - Galanthus nivalis L. belongs to Polish the earliest flowering plants. Natural localities of this species are mainly grouped in the south of the country. In Poland Galanthus nivalis is a strictly protected species, in the Ma這polska Upland it is vulnerable (category VU).
The new locality of the snowdrop is situated in the northern part of the 安i皻okrzyskie Mountains, on Che軛 Mountain near Zagna雟k. G. nivalis occurs there on the slope covered with the oak-hornbeam forest (Tilio - Carpinetum). In 2011 the population was composed of 35 flowering and about 60 sterile Galanthus nivalis individuals. The locality of the snowdrop is the first in the buffer zone of the Suchedniowsko-Obl璕orski Landscape Park. Further observations of G. nivalis on Che軛 Mountain define dynamic tendencies in this population.


Rare species of saproxylic beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera)
of Kampinos National Park


The saproxylic beetle in the Kampinos National Park has hardly been investigated so far. Since 2010 the study of community of the saproxylic beetle in the broadleaved forest habitat of the Kampinos National Park has been conducted. The study has revealed more than 600 saproxylic species and a large number of them are rare in Poland. This paper presents the data concerning 18 rare fauna species. Nine of them are new species for the Mazovia Lowland: Euglenes pygmaeus, E. oculatus, Pseudeuparius sepicola, Choragus sheppardi, Hypoganus inunctus, Cryptolestes duplicatus, Leptophloeus alternans, Rhizophagus aenus and Mordellaria aurofasciata. Seven of the presented species are included in the European Red List of Saproxylic Beetles: Ampedus elegantulus, A. erythrogonus, H. inunctus, Procraeus tibialis, Mycetophagus ater, M. fulvicollis and M. populi. Five species are in the Red list of threatened animals in Poland: H. inunctus, Abraeus parvulus, R. aeneus, M. aurofasciata and M. ater. Most of the species mentioned in the paper are currently reported only in several localities in the country. Mordellaria aurofasciata (Mordellidae) deserves particular attention. Its locality in the Kampinos National Park is the third known in the country. All species mentioned in the paper may be regarded as species or biological indicators of a primeval forest.


Observation of the wintering of the pond bat Myotis dasycneme (BOIE, 1825)
in Citadel of Grudzi康z


During the bat survey on the 8th February 2013 we have found five individuals of pond bats Myotis dasycneme hibernating in the Citadel of Grudzi康z. Although one mummified individual of this species had been found previously at this location, present observations are the first report of living, hibernating individuals of M. dasycneme in this complex of fortifications. Because the Citadel of Grudzi康z is a military object we were able to inspect only less than 40% of existing abandoned objects. Thus, we conclude that it can be one of the most important hibernacula of M. dasycneme in Poland.


The XVIII Fungi Exposition of the Bia這wie瘸 Forest


On the XVIII Fungi Exposition of Bia這wie瘸 Forest, organized by Education Center of Bia這wie瘸 National Park, 229 species of macrofungi have been presented. During collecting of the fungi, some species are found, which are not presented on the exposition because of the small basidiocarps or bad condition of specimens. Among them, 4 species new to Poland and 16 first time recorded on the area of Bia這wie瘸 Forest have been found.


Biosphere Reserves - Evolution of the concept


The article describes the changes which occurred within over 40 years in understanding the tasks and the purposes that biospheres reserves have and should fulfil. The idea of creating the biosphere reserves was conceived within the MAB programme (Man and the Biosphere Programme) that was started by the UNESCO in 1971. The first 51 biosphere reserves were approved in 1976, including 4 objects in Poland. In the consecutive year the network increased to 61 objects. The reserves were supposed to have the following tasks: 1/ the protection of the diversity of both the integrity of both plant and animal communities in natural ecosystems, as well as protecting the genetic diversity of species; 2/ establishing areas of research into ecology and environmental sciences, including the basic research, both in the very reserves, as well as on the neighbouring areas; 3/ ensuring conditions for educational activities. Two zones were singled out in the spatial structure of reserves: the spinal zone - subjected to the rigorous protection and the buffer zone, where certain forms of limited use is allowed, for example conducting experiments in nature.
In the eighties, along with the popularization of the paradigm of the sustainable development, greater attention was paid to the social aspects of functioning of the biosphere reserves, and the third zone known as the transitional zone was singled out. Biosphere reserves were getting more and more large in terms of the area and more diversified, spreading through developed and settled large areas as well.
At the conference held in 1995 in Seville a statutory framework of the biosphere reserves was legislated, in which its tasks were specified anew, distinguishing the following functions: 1/ the protective function for keeping genetic resources, species, ecosystems and landscapes; 2/ the developmental function for the promotion of sustainable development of the economy and of man; 3/ the logistic supporting by helping with model projects, environmental education and training, as well as research and the monitoring. The Seville Strategy was also developed to determine the rules guiding the network for the consecutive years, with reference to other international actions, in particular connected with the convention on the biodiversity and Agenda 21. Also in the nineties, transboundary biosphere reserves started coming into existence, to which Poland has made a significant contribution.
During the third world congress of Biosphere Reserves (Madrid 2008) a particular topic of discussion was the role that transboundary biosphere reserves can play in following matters: 1/ the accelerating climate change, with consequences for the community and the ecosystems; 2/ the quick decline in biodiversity and cultural variety; 3/ sudden urbanisation that is one of main factors causing changes in the environment. The action plan was drawn up for the biosphere reserves for 5 consecutive years and divided into the following sections: 1/ cooperation, the management and the communication; 2/ spatial zoning; 3/ learning and raising the ability to act.
From 1996 the number of reserves rose at a pace of about 20 reserves per year. There were as many as 610 objects, located in 117 countries in 2012. Nowadays, big reserves are dominating in the network, they have a folded spatial structure and inwardly diversified forms of management. One of the problems of the network, which has not yet been resolved, are small objects incurred in the initial period that now are not able to function according to the statutory framework objectives.
The functioning of Polish biosphere reserves encounters problems in developmental and logistic aspects. It is possible to seek their causes in the lack of statutory legal grounds, limited possibilities of the functioning of the Polish Committee UNESCO-MAB, weak coordination of actions taken by different kinds of protected areas, including insufficient cooperation of different social entities with the reserves.


Is the information on the introduction of Pieninian-Alpine hybrids
of the Apollo butterfly in the Pieniny Mts. was in fact incorrect?


Both authors are responsible for the polemical article (WITKOWSKI et al. 2012), although our study (D、ROWSKI 2010 and MASΜWSKI 2005) was developed independently. However, we are both listed as presenting incorrect information and erroneous conclusions about breeding of the Apollo butterfly. Now, the publication (IRZYKOWICZ 1996) raises our concerns, and we asked for information directly from the person handling the culture of the Apollo butterfly. Ing. Jerzy Budzik provided us with direct information about the breeding of Apollo butterfly for Pieniny National Park and for the reintroduction of this species in the Sudetenland. He clearly stated that the Pieniny Mts. Apollo butterfly population is supplied with specimens bred in the so-called "alpine" genetic line. Therefore, this problem should not raise objections and should end further discussion. Information about the mixing of the two genetic lines are clearly available and this fact has never been concealed. A fundamental question remains - why the persons who made the decision to actively carry out protective measures and thus ab ovo breeding, also allowed the breeding of the so-called "alpine" lines. Did they not foresee the inadvertent mixing of the two lines or was this a deliberate action on their part?

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