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PNRP 32(3) – 2013 r.


Contribution to the bryoflora of Central Poland. Mosses
and liverworts of the Jod造 Ole郾ickie nature reserve (ód voivodeship)


This paper presents the results of the research conducted in 2011 in the Jod造 Ole郾ickie nature reserve. This reserve is located in the ód voivodeship, between the villages: Ole郾ica, Mianów, Wola Puczniewska and Franciszków (19°04'E oraz 51°49'N) (Fig. 1). Its whole area is covered with only one forest plant community - Tilio - Carpinetum abietetosum, belonging to the Carpinion betuli, but the vegetation is degenerated by Pinus sylvestris stands.
Thirty-five bryophyte species were recorded during the research - 31 mosses and four liverworts. Analysis of the species frequency showed that rare species dominated (14 species - 40% of bryophytes) (Tab. 2). There were four types of habitat colonized by bryophytes: epigeic, epixylic, epiphytic and epilitic. The highest number of species was found in the epixylic habitat (24). In this group most bryophytes grew on stumps (20) and logs (16).
All bryological data reported from the nature reserve Jod造 Ole郾ickie in the past, were compiled and compared with the data collected contemporarily. Four species typical for coniferous forests disappeared and two new species, characteristic for deciduous forests, appeared for the first time. It could indicate the processes of the Tilio - Carpinetum community regeneration. Another change concerns epiphytes - three new epiphytic species, including two acidophilic epiphytes, were recorded.

Mites (Acari, Mesostigmata) of the ‘‘Ostrów Panie雟ki" nature reserve
and adjacent poplar plantations


The Ostrów Panie雟ki nature reserve (14.77 ha; 53°21'N, 18°26'E) is situated on the right bank floodplain of the Vistula River near Che軛no, Poland. The history of plant cover protection of the reserve goes back to the year 1922 when the entire forest district was protected because of the rare natural forest association, the elm-ash riparian forest (Ficario - Ulmetum minoris). This association has high degree of naturalness in comparison with other elm-ash riparian forests described in this region and adjacent areas, in spite of the fact that regulation of the Vistula River and flood dikes were build in 1935. The aim of the study was to determine the list of mites from the order Mesostigmata within the nature reserve and adjacent poplar plantations. 56 soil samples have been collected in 2004. 76 mite species from Mesostigmata order were found. The higher number of mite species was found within the nature reserve area, but still many of mite the observed species belong to the fauna of wet sites and riparian forests on both areas.

Herpetofauna of the Spa豉 Landscape Park


The research was carried out in the years 2011 - 2012 in the area of the Spa豉 Landscape Park (SLP). The Park is located in the ód voivodeship (Central Poland). It covers the area of 13.110 ha and holds 6 nature reserves (Konewka, Spa豉, 秧d這wice, Jele, Ga Spalska and S逝gocice).
The function of the Spalski Landscape Park is to protect the forests and plants of the lower Pilica river basin. A characteristic feature of SPK is the occurrence of large wet forests, especially riparian forests.
The research included an inventory of amphibians and reptiles, breeding ecology of chosen species and identification of threats, along with determining necessary protection measures. The following species were found: great crested newt Triturus cristatus LAUR., smooth newt Lissotriton vulgaris L., European fire-bellied toad Bombina bombina L., European common spadefoot Pelobates fuscus LAUR., common toad Bufo bufo L., European green toad Pseudepidalea viridis LAUR., European tree frog Hyla arborea L., edible frog Pelophylax kl. esculentus L., pool frog Pelophylax lessonae CAM., marsh frog Pelophylax ridibundus PALL., moor frog Rana arvalis NILSS., common frog Rana temporaria L., sand lizard Lacerta agilis L., viviparous lizard Zootoca vivipara JACQUIN, slow worm Anguis fragilis L., grass snake Natrix natrix L. and common European adder Vipera berus L. (Fig. 2). The research included breeding ecology of the common toad Bufo bufo L. and moor frog Rana arvalis NILSS. (Fig. 3).
The main threat to the herpetofauna results from harmful variations of the water relationships, resulting in a decrease of water levels and drying out of water bodies. The other type of unfavorable changes are deadly collisions of migrating batrachofauna with cars. The highest mortality was observed on the road sections between villages Inowódz and Spa豉. What is worse, pollution of water was observed, as well as high pressure on the environment resulting form urbanization and tourism.

Changes in the area of Lakes Located in Wielkopolska National Park
and its buffer zone


The study is an exploration of changes in the area of lakes located within the present boundaries of the Wielkopolska National Park and its buffer zone. Based on cartographic materials, it was established that the total area of 20 lakes decreased by nearly one third (28.7%), from 588.8 ha to 419.9 ha, in the period spanning the years 1890 - 2010. The main reason for the observed changes is human activity. Drainage works led to the complete disappearance of Kr徙olewskie Lake and lowering of the water table in several other bodies of water. Expansion of the settlement network combined with the intensification of agriculture results in increased supply of biogenic elements and, consequently, faster overgrowing of lakes and deposition of biomass in the lake basins. It is quite alarming to note that the establishment of the Wielkopolska National Park in 1957 has failed to halt the unfavourable tendency. In fact, the lake area was found to have decreased by 80.8 ha since the creation of the Park, while in the period preceding the Park's creation (which is about a quarter of the century longer) the lake area had decreased by 88.1 ha. This is related to an inconsistency of the Park's boundaries and its buffer zone with the catchment areas of individual lakes, and elevated human activity in the latter.


Limnic ratio of national parks in Poland


Lakes located in the area of national parks contribute to their diversity with respect to both biotic and abiotic conditions. The limnic ratio is a measurable index which allows assessing the share of lakes in the total area of the surveyed region. In this case it is defined as the ratio between the total area of lakes and the total area of the national parks. This study is an analysis of the values of the limnic ratio for the national parks of Poland. Permanent lakes with area equal to or exceeding 1 ha were taken into consideration. From among 23 national parks in Poland, such water bodies occur in 10 of them. The limnic ratio determined for all the parks amounts to 4.37%, which is much higher than for Poland (0.9%). The elimination of parks where no natural water bodies occur (with area 1 ha and larger) results in the increase of the limnic ratio to 11.3%. The S這wi雟ki National Park is characterized by the highest limnic ratio - 29.1%. If the sea area is excluded from the total area of this park, the limnic ratio rises to 44%. In turn, the lowest share of lakes in the total area is observed in the Karkonosze National Park - 0.2%.


Short floristic, faunistic and micobiotic notes

New data on the distribution of Myxomycetes in central Poland


Slime moulds of the class Myxomycetes are discussed. These are heterotrophic, cosmopolitan organisms occurring chiefly in forest communities on dead organic remains. A total of 39 taxa (37 species, two varieties) were collected in the years 2009 - 2011 from the following reserves: Bia豉czów, Czarny ㄆg, Korze, Ostoja, Parowy Janinowskie, R帳ie, Struga Dobieszkowska.
The reserves are in the ódzkie voivodeship in central Poland. Information on the occurrence of slime moulds in the Bia豉czów and the Parowy Janinowskie reserves has been published previously (印USARCZYK 2010, xWRYNOWICZ et al. 2011). Findings from other reserves are published for the first time.

First stand of Northern Running-pine Diphasiastrum complanatum (L.) HOLUB
on the Kozienice Landscape Park


The Northern Running-pine Diphasiastrum complanatum (L.) HOLUB is a species strictly protected under Polish law. It grows across the country, but is a rare plant in all its sites, especially in the lowlands.
The northern running-pine has never been reported on the Radom Plain. It is not included in the list of plant species of the largest forest complex in that area, that is, the Kozienice Forest.
During a 2012 floral study of the Radom Plain, a Northern Running-pine site was discovered in plot 10 of Forestry Zadobrze (Forest Distgrict Radom) at the verge of the forest complex adjoining the village of M彗osy Nowe. This area is part of the Kozienice Landscape Park. The Northern Running-pine grows here in a moderately fertile oak forest with the dominant tree being the sessile oak Quercus petraea and with a minor share of the Scots pine Pinus sylvestris. Due to habitat conditions, structure, and presence of several diagnostic species, the phytocoenosis has been classified as a Central European oak forest association Calamagrostio arundinaceae - Quercetum petraeae in borderland form.
In the area in question, the Northern Running-pine forms two small clumps under the canopy of sessile oaks.
A potential threat to this site may be picking of the above-ground parts of the plants. Protection of the Northern Running-pine should be primariy linked to carrying out conservation tasks for the natural habitat (9190) of acidophilic oak forest under the Conservation Plan for the Natura 2000 area "Kozienice Forest".


Rare, endangered and probably extinct vascular plants of "Ruda" Nature Reserve
in the Rospuda river valley


During the floristic research carried out in 2009 - 2011 in the Zachodniosuwalskie Lakeland, the vascular plants of "Ruda" Nature Reserve in the Rospuda river valley were inventoried. Among the most valuable elements of the flora, 12 taxa, including 7 species from the orchid family, were chosen.
Some plants are considered to be probably extinct (Dactylorhiza maculata, Malaxis monophyllos, Orchis mascula subsp. signifera and Trollius europaeus), while others are rare or endangered in the area of the reserve. Relinquishment of traditional use of the wet meadows (i.e. extensive pasturing, mowing) and plundering of the riparian forest are the most important factors of the threat.


Rove beetles (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) new for Babia Góra


This paper presents the results of the followup study by the authors of the studies on Staphylinidae of the Babia Góra Massif. We have presented the locations of 47 species, which were not previously reported in this area. The most interesting species include: Proteinus crenulatus, Micropeplus tesserula, Aleochara kamila, Placusa depressa, Anotylus mutator, Bisnius nigriventris, Philonthus alpinus and Philonthus pseudovarians. Two species are new for the Western Beskids: Bisnius nigriventris i Philonthus pseudovarians. Staphylinidae of Babia Góra are currently represented by 444 species.


Konrad Wróblewski - researcher of the European bison


Konrad Wróblewski was born in 1864 in Vilnius. In 1894, he graduated from the Institute of Veterinary in Dorpat. For 2.5 years (1906 - 1909) he worked in the Bia這wie瘸 Forest as a member of the scientific commission to investigate the reasons for the extinction of the European bison.
The result of his work was presented in the monograph "European bison of Bia這wie瘸 Forest" ("真br Puszczy Bia這wieskiej") published in 1927 in Polish. This book is a valuable source of unique information on the biology and ecology of the European bison in the last natural population in the Bia這wie瘸 Forest in the early 20th century. Wróblewski described the morphology, social behaviour, type of food, and reproduction of European bison. A large part of the monograph is dedicated to health and the determination of causes of European bison mortality. According to Wróblewski, the primary reason of European bison dying out in the beginning of 20th century was the lack of food in winter in the Bia這wie瘸 Forest. In early 1930s, for a short period of time he worked again in the Bia這wie瘸 Forest, establishing the bacteriological laboratory at the State Forests Directoriate in Bia這wie瘸. The result of this work was published in 1932 and included 23 recommendations for the restitution of European bison in Bia這wie瘸 Forest and Poland.

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