Tłumacz migowy online
bip biuletyn
informacji publicznej


Konferencja IGO 2023
Bilety online
PKP Intercity

Projekt PL BY
Dzika Odyseja
Izba Administracji Skarbowej w Białymstoku
Strona główna arrow Parki Narodowe i Rezerwaty Przyrody

PNRP 32(4) – 2013 r.


Contribution to the bryoflora of Central Poland.
Mosses and liverworts of the Doliska reserve
(Łódź voivodeship)


This paper presents the results of research conducted in 2011 in the reserve Doliska. This reserve is located in Łódzkie voivodeship, between the villages: Stefanów, Przyłęk duży Jozefów and Rogów - 19°53'E and 51°50'N (Fig. 1). On the entire area only one forest plant community - Tilio - Carpinetum abietetosum, belonging to the Carpinion betuli grows.
Twenty-three species of bryophytes were recorded during the research - 21 mosses and two liverworts. Analysis of the species frequency showed that common species dominated (10 species - 48% of bryophytes) (Tab. 1). The reserve area contains four types of habitat colonized by bryophytes: epigeic, epixylic, epiphytic and epilithic. The highest number of species was found in the epiphytic habitat (14). The least (only two) in the epilitic habitat. The largest number of epiphytes occur on tree-bark of Quercus petraea (11) and Pinus sylvestris (7). Analysis of the substrata bryofloristic similarity showed that the most similarities occur between: Carpinus betulus and Abies alba, forming one group together with Pinus sylvestris and Betula pendula.


Amphibian eggs' mortality in the Białowieża Forest, Poland


Central part of the Białowieża Forest, the last remnant of lowland deciduous forests of primeval character in Europe, is strictly protected for over 90 years. That means that direct anthropogenic pressure is heavily limited. Within this area selected water bodies were monitored in spring during the breeding season of two locally most common amphibian species: Rana temporaria and Rana arvalis. Percentage of developing and undeveloped eggs was estimated. The study shown that up to 86% of eggs failed to develop. Closer examination showed that the eggs were covered with a cotton-like structure which gradually grew and the amphibian embryos failed to develop and eventually died. Samples of eggs were checked in the laboratory for presence of fungi-like organisms and several species of the genus Saprolegnia were found. It is presumed that water molds contributed to the high mortality of amphibian eggs. Further studies are needed in order to explain the causes of observed phenomenon.


Variability in horn size of Lowland European bison in the Białowieża Forest at present
and at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries
and of Caucasian European bison


Analysis of horn measurements was performed on 260 (130 males and 130 females) sexually mature Lowland European bison aged from 4 to 20 years (males) and from 4 to 27 years (females), living in the Białowieża Forest in 1967 - 2012. Data concerning males was divided into six age classes: 4, 5, 6, 7 - 10, 11 - 14, and 15 - 20, while in case of females, the oldest seventh age class was added (21 - 27). In males, horn circumference at base, as well as maximum distance between horn curves are significantly correlated with age (r=0.59 and r=0.45, respectively, p<0.001) and grow up to the age of about 15 years. Three measurements of horns are significantly correlated with the orbital breadth of a skull, and so bulls with the widest skulls have the longest and thickest horns with the greatest maximum distance between horn curves. In female Lowland European bison, the strongest correlation with age was found for the horn length (r= 0.73, p<0.001) that increases almost to the end of life, as well as for the maximum distance between horn curves (r= 0.48, p<0.001) that grows up to the age of about 15 years. Cows with the widest skulls have the longest horns and the greatest maximum distance between horn curves. Most of the maximum horn measurements of male Lowland European bison from the contemporary population were noted in the age class of 11 - 14 years (maximum distance between horn curves 790 mm, horn circumference at base 395 mm and breadth between horn bases 295 mm) or 15 - 20 years (horn length 550 mm). Maximum value of the distance between horn tips was noted in the male age groups of 5 and 11 - 14 years. Maximum measurements of horns of females were noted either in the oldest age group of 21 - 27 years (horn circumference at base 240 mm and horn length 525 mm) or 15 - 20 years (distance between horn tips 525 mm, maximum distance between horn curves 670 mm and breadth between horn bases 265 cm). The obtained results were compared with the horn measurements of adult European bison from the last natural population that lived in the Białowieża Forest at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries and of the Caucasian European bison. Most horn measurements of contemporary adult Lowland European bison of both sexes are significantly bigger than measurements of specimens from the last natural population in the Białowieża Forest. The horn measurements of Caucasian European bison differ only slightly from those of the Lowland European bison living at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries except for the distance between horn tips and the breadth between horn bases, which are significantly smaller in Caucasian bisons. The shape and size of the horns of males and females differ significantly in both populations of Lowland European bison compared in the study, as well as in Caucasian bison and are among the characteristics of their sexual dimorphism.


Wolf in the Tatras and in the Podtatrze


Wolf is a native representatives of fauna of the Tatra Mountains. It occurs mainly in forest area, less frequent up to a height of 2250 m above sea level. Territories of predators typically include Tatras area and the adjacent parts of the Tatras. Information appearing about this species since the beginning of the eighteenth century inform only about his occurrence and threats. In the Slovakian Tatras from 1910 to the end of the 1940 of twentieth century, and in the Polish Tatras to the 1980s there was no permanent refuge of wolf. Currently, the size of this species in the Tatra mountains is about 30 individuals. This species is treated here as a natural predator, shaping the structure of groups of ungulates in a unique mountain terrain and close proximity. In the Tatra Mountains their food consists mostly of the family of deer and wild mammals with mountain goats and marmots. The damage done by a wolf within mountain livestock, mainly sheep are nowadays not so high. In the past, during mountain intensive economy, this predator also enlisted the goats, cows, horses and other. Man's reaction on often exaggerated damage made by this animal was the absolute destruction of this species, which led to the its extermination. The hunting methods consisted of diggin wolf pits in the ground, hunting with firearms or poisoning, killing youngs in burrows. The domestic animals were effectively protected by dogs fitted with spiked collars.


Water-level fluctuations in the Kamienna river in the years 1951 - 2010 (Piechowice profile)


Based on the daily water-level measurements in the Kamienna River in the Piechowice profile, carried out by the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management, water-level fluctuations were analyzed, both throughout the entire period under consideration (1951 - 2010), and month by month. It was found that the water level showed an upward trend, the main cause of which was the deforestation of the Karkonosze and the Jizera Mountains, caused by man-made atmospheric pollution. It is particularly clearly visible in the period from the late 70's of the 20th century onward, when higher water levels were recorded. Even though a significant part of the drainage basin of the analyzed river is covered by the National Park, which is the highest form of environmental protection in Poland, it proved ineffective when it came to atmospheric pollution. Currently, as a result of reduced emissions of harmful substances, the situation is improving, however, full recovery of the retention structure of the forest is a lengthy process. This situation is particularly disadvantageous from the point of view of flood control, because of the natural proneness of the Kamienna River (as a mountain river) to flooding has been intensified by the human interference with the of reception basin use structure.



Species diversity of lichens (Fungi lichenisati)
in Klewinowo village and surrounding areas (NE Poland)


The research of lichen biota of Klewinowo and its surroundings was conducted in July, August and October of 2012. On the investigated agricultural area 66 taxa were found, out of which 65 species, from 15 families. The lichens of these area represent every possible morphological form and ecological group. Despite the lack of the valuable specimens from kinds such as: Usnea or Bryoria, the lichenological value of the Klewinowo village and its surrounding areas is established by the presence of 9 Red-listed species (CIEŚLIŃSKI et al. 2003) and 15 taxa protected in Poland (REGULATION... 2004).


The XIX Fungi Exhibition in Tuchola Landscape Park


On 2 - 3 October at the main office of Tuchola Landscape Park (TLP ) in Tuchola for the nineteenth time the fungi exhibition organized by Tuchola Landscape Park in cooperation with the Forest District Tuchola and the Polish Botanical Society was held. The exhibition was preceded by workshops for teachers and workers employed at landscape parks of Pomorskie and Kujawsko-Pomorskie voivodships, and in the epidemiological station in Tuchola. The theoretical part included presentation of fungi features, principles of safe mushroom picking and directions on how to collect fruiting bodies for the exhibition. During the second part, which was a field trip, some fruit bodies were collected and presented to the visitors on the following day. Additionally, workshops for the students of Forest Technical Secondary School in Tuchola were organized. The visitors had a chance to see 120 fungi species, mostly the species collected in a pine forest near Tuchola. As every year, the exhibition turned out to be very popular.



Was the native Pieniny population of the butterfly "contaminated" by Pieniny-Alpine hybrids during
the Apollo butterfly (
Parnassius apollo L.) restitution programme conducted
in the Pieniny National Park?


The aim of this polemic is to respond to the notion proposed by J.S. Dąbrowski (2010) and J.S. Dąbrowski and J. Masłowski (2013) in which they suggest that during the Apollo butterfly (Parnassius apollo ssp. frankenbergeri SLABY) restitution programme, conducted in the Pieniny National Park in the nineties of the 20th century, the native Pieniny population of the butterfly was "contaminated" by Pieniny-Alpine hybrids. A comprehensive attempt to clarify this issue was made in 2012 (WITKOWSKI et al. 2012).
The person responsible for the Apollo butterfly captive breeding during the restitution programme was M.Sc. Eng. Jerzy Budzik. His statement, quoted here, in which he denies allegations of his opponents, should eventually resolve any doubts on the issue placed in the title questions.
Jerzy Budzik recalls the year 1991, when 20 caterpillars were collected from the Three Crowns Massif to launch the captive breeding. Two breeding lines were created then: P1 and P2 (with maximum egg production) and additionally the one from two females captured and lying eggs in the Pieniny National Park, with their egg production smaller than the maximum: PN1 and PN2.
J. Budzik also stated that despite documented genetic impoverishment, inbred lines P1, P2, PN1 and PN2 as well as hybrids P1xP2, P2xP1, P1xPN1, PN1xP1, P1xPN2, PN2xP1, P2xPN1, PN1xP2, P2xPN2 and PN2xP2, were the purest within the Pieniny population.
The authors of this polemics hope that the paper will definitively end the discussion on this topic, arguing simultaneously that comparative genetic studies are the only way to settle the dispute.

  • Polish
  • English