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,,PNRP’’ 27(1) - 2008 r.

Lichens in peat bog reserves “Mszar” and “Redykajny” in Olsztyn Lake District


The peat bog reserves “Mszar” and “Redykajny” are situated in the central part of Olsztyn Lake District within the administrative borders of the city of Olsztyn. The studies of lichens in those reserves were carried out during the years 1999 – 2001. Presence of 93 lichen species, 44 in “Mszar” reserve and 80 in “Redykajny” reserve, was recorded. The biota of lichens in both peat bogs includes a numerous group of rare species (e.g. Calicium trabinellum, Parmelia submontana, Usnea subfloridana) or species that are mostly overlooked in Poland and so far known from just a few localities (e.g. Absconditella lignicola, Fuscidea arboricola, F. pusilla, Lecanora ramulicola, Lecidea nylanderi, Pycnora sorophora, Scoliciosporum sarothamni, Thelidium minutulum). Among the identified species 16 are protected by law in Poland and 23 are threatened with extinction in Poland. Within the study area epiphytic (72 taxa) and epixylic (47) lichens dominated. Among the phorophytes present in both reserves the richest communities of lichens were recorded on the bark of black alder (28), aspen (21), birch (19), scots pine (18), common oak (16) and ash (10). Among epixylic lichens some rarely reported species such as Absconditella lignicola, Calicium trabinellum, Chaenotheca trichialis, Ch. xyloxena, Chaenothecopsis pusiola, Micarea melaena and Vulpicida pinastri were found on timber only.

The state of isolated natural populations of thistle Carlina onopordifolia in Poland


The contemporary trends in management of biosphere resources and human economic activity cause a threat to many elements of flora and fauna. One of the endangered plant species is thistle Carlina onopordifolia BESSER – very rare species in the Polish flora – reported from 7 stands, of which only three (“Wa造” nature reserve, “Stawska Góra” reserve and Pi鎍zów site) can be classified as abundant in regard to numbers of specimens in populations (more than 1000). This is a plant confined to very specific habitats, with specialized requirements concerning biotopic conditions, climate and temperature. For at least 100 years the plant has attracted the interest of botanists, ecologists who have studied dynamics of its populations, and made attempts of its introduction into new stands of similar ecological conditions. At present, this species occurs in 7 stands: 5 in the Ma這polska Upland (“Wa造” nat. res., Skowronno, Pi鎍zów, Pasturka, Bogucice sites) and 2 in the Lublin Upland (“Stawska Góra” and “Rogów” nat. reserves). The most abundant stands are: “Wa造” reserve (ca. 8000 including 650 flowering plants), “Stawska Góra” reserve (ca 3300 including ca. 150 flowering specimens) and Pi鎍zów site (1245 plants including 125 flowering ones). The number of specimens in remaining populations does not exceed in total 600 specimens and - ca. 50 flowering plants. Totally, abundance of this species on the scale of the country amounts to about 13600 individuals. The dynamics of specimens in the years 1980 – 2006 in particular stands is shown in table 1 and their distribution on Fig. 1.
Carlina onopordifolia is a plant that germinates only from seeds whose number depends on frequency of blooming and number of flowering plants as well as on size of multi-flowered anthodiums. In one inflorescence there may be ca 1000 – 2250 flowers but only 75% are pollinated and finally ca. 40% become fruit which are achenes. Fruit of Carlina onopordifolia are heavy – ca. 0.0243 g including pappus which enables wind-spread.
The most effective form of legal protection is nature reserve. It is proposed to establish a large nature reserve “Góry Pi鎍zowskie” which would encompass all stands of Carlina onopordifolia from neighbourhood of Pi鎍zów.

Characteristics of the vascular flora of the “Mokry Jegiel” reserve and its surrounding


The flora of the “Mokry Jegiel” reserve includes 263 species of vascular plants hierarchically belonging to: 5 phylums, 6 classes, 41 orders, 66 families and 166 genus. A dominating group is the Magnoliophyta, consisting of 248 representatives, grouped together into 156 species and 56 families. Among them the most abundant are those represented by Cyperaceae, Asteraceae, Rosaceae, Lamiaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Apiaceae and Ranunculaceae, including over 50% of stated species.
Analysis of dynamic tendencies of the examined flora showed the majority of plants with rising number of localities in the country. They constitute half of all the stated taxons. 14 species of the analysed flora demonstrate a downward trend. In the studied area appearance of 12 plants assigned to protected species was observed, 7 of them under total and 6 of them under partial protection. One Succisella inflexa species is put in “Polish Plant Red Data Book”, under VU threat category. This species, together with other two species, is also on “Red List of Vascular Plants Threatened in Poland”. On the regional red list of vascular plants of the Po逝dniowopodlaska Lowland, apart from 4 recalled species endangered on the scale of the country, 13 other plants were enumerated. The characteristic species with greatest individual participation (69) are meadow communities from the Molinio – Arrhenatheretea class, which with regard to their little surface (ca 3% of the land), shows that they have an important contribution in protecting the species diversity of the discussed area.

Biodiversity of meadows depending on the way of use in Bieszczady National Park


The dynamics of the Bieszczady National Park meadows biodiversity was examined within 20 selected stable monitoring areas occurring as 10 square pairs distributed in Wo這sate valley and Ustrzyki Górne. Each pair consisted of both squares mowed regularly and squares excluded from mowing.
Floral lists concerning these areas were made in 2000 and then repeated in 2006 (six years later). On the basis of quantitative and qualitative changes in the meadow flora the register of biodiversity changes was made (Table 1) under the influence of diverse meadow phytocenosis treatment. The list of species positively and negatively reacting to the soil resting (Table 2) and mowing (Table 3) was made.
Results clearly show that meadow plant communities react to area exclusion from moving. A decrease of the species number takes place and a specific expansive group of plants appears (Galeopsis tetrachit, G. speciosa, Cirsium palustre, Angelica sylvestris, Deschampsia caespitosa). In case of regular mowing the areas are settled with some photophilous species like: Campanula patula, Lychnis flos-cuculi, Hieracium pilosella, Dactylorhiza majalis.
Such a visible reaction observed in the period of six years indicates how important is mowing regularity on the meadows with high biodiversity rate can be.

Critical list of spiders (Araneae) of the Ojców National Park


This paper presents critical data register of the spiders occurring in the Ojców National Park (198 species) which has been updated with results of the studies conducted during 2006 (240 confirmed species). It amounts to a number of 284 species altogether. In the known literature, information about other 10 extra species could be found: Harpactea lepida, Anguliphantes monticola, Ceratinella brevipes, Hypsocephalus dahli, Porrhomma campbelli, P. rosenhaueri, Syedra gracilis, Walckenaeria nodosa, Philodromus poecilus and Leptorchestes berolinensis. Analysis of this information indicates  however that these species were added to fauna of Ojców National Park by a mistake whereas L. berolinensis is most probably extinct as it was not possible to find it once more. Because of that it is suggested that until occurrence of these species is confirmed by current research, the 10 mentioned above species should be removed from the list of spiders of the Ojców National Park. Conducted research showed a great variety of species occurring in the area of Ojców National Park. One of the most interesting findings of the 2006 research is that two very sparse and protected species occur there: Atypus muralis and A. piceus and also the occurrence of Titanoeca quadriguttata was confirmed after more that 100 years since the first information occurred. Pre-analysis of data gathered from research in the xerothermic environments indicate that it is inhabited by a very interesting group of spiders. Occurrence of species such as Alopecosa inquilina, A. trabalis, Arctosa lutetiana, Pardosa bifasciata, Tegenaria campestris, Zodarion germanicum, Trachyzelotes pedestris, Ozyptila blackwalli, O. claveata, O. scabricula, Xysticus robustus, Asianellus festivus, Phlegra fasciata was confirmed. Research conducted in the forest environments of Ojców National Park showed that araneofauna should have many mountain species what was confirmed by occurrence of Anguliphantes nodifer, Centromerus serratus, Saloca kulczynskii, Sintula corniger, Tegenaria silvestris. Even though the list was extended to 284 species, it is expected that future studies will allow to find more species.

Distribution and structure of macrozoobenthos in Krzynia reservoir
in the area of “Dolina S逝pi” Lanscape Park


Sampling material from the Krzy雟ki reservoir, located in the area of “Dolina S逝pi” landscape park, was taken in March, June and October 2004. 14 sampling sites were chosen in three zones of the reservoir: A-inflow of riverine waters, B-middle zone and C-water outflow. Qualitative and quantitative structure of benthofauna indicated advanced eutrophication of the Krzynia dam reservoir which is typical of this type of water region. Density and biomass level of invertebrates were determined at shallow-water sampling sites. Among the studied zones the highest density was recorded in the middle zone of the reservoir (B) (4276 indiv. m-2) while the lowest in the outflow zone (C) – 2857 indiv. m-Mean biomass of aquatic invertebrates increased from the inflow to the outflow zones, ranging from 108.18 g m-2 to 225.36 g m-2. In the middle zone of Krzynia a considerable imbalance between bethofauna density and biomass was observed, which was caused by a high number of Oligochaeta and Chironomidae larvae accompanied by low Mollusca abundance. The calculated Shannon biodiversity index indicated a slight diversity of macrozoobenthos in the whole studied dam reservoir.

Ichtiofauna of ㄊna River on the “Source of ㄊna River” and “Warmian Forest” Reserves


The investigative fish catches were conducted on two protected zones of the River ㄊna in September 2004. In Reserve “The Sources of the River ㄊna” only Brown trout Salmo trutta m. fario and stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus were detected. In the “Warmian Forest” Reserve ten fish species occurred in samples. Two of them: bullhead Cottus gobio and Spined loach Cobitis taenia under the protection are. Gudgeon Gobio gobio predominated there in the fish fauna (53.6%). Eel Anguilla anguilla, spined loach and bullhead also occurred abundantly, while the brown trout was visibly rarer species than in the “Sources of the River ㄊna”.

Amphibian fauna of the Suwa趾i Landscape Park


Researches conducted in the last few decades show that the number and species diversity of amphibians in the world are decreasing. In accordance to this, the inventorying and protection of amphibian breeding and occurrence sites are becoming increasingly important. Suwa趾i Landscape Park lies in the north-eastern Poland, covers the area of 6284 ha and is a unique example of young postglacial landscape with a mosaic of habitats of favourable conditions for occurrence of amphibians, although the climate of this area is more severe than in other regions of Poland.
During the inventory in the years 1998 – 2004, 113 water reservoirs were penetrated and all the found amphibians were caught and released after determining the species and sex. 11 species of amphibians were found in the Park’s area and the most numerous were: smooth newt Triturus vulgaris, common toad Bufo bufo, pool frog Rana lessonae and brown frogs (common frog –R. temporaria and moor frog – R. arvalis). The rarest were warty newt Triturus cristatus, fire-bellied toad Bombina bombina, green toad B. viridis, natterjack B. calamita and edible frog R. esculenta. The occurrence of green toad and natterjack was of a patch structure – it was limited to the areas in the Park’s buffer zone – and one can suppose these species are endangered with extinction in this area.
The number of amphibians killed by vehicles on main (asphalt) roads was 2 – 3 times higher than on local roads. The number mentioned above was especially high on the main, regional road running along the eastern border of the Park. Common frogs and common toads dominated on all kinds of roads, although the number of amphibian species observed on local roads was higher than on main roads. Among 93 breeding sites of amphibians recorded in the Park, 16% functions only in unusually humid years.

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