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PNRP 33(1) – 2014 r.


Lichens of Branicki Park in Bia造stok


The paper contains documentation of changes in the lichen biota of the historic park Branicki Park in Bia造stok, Podlaskie province, after about 10 years. A list of lichen species collected is presented. This historic park is located in the centre of Bialystok (53°07’47.81’’ N 23°09’48.81’’ E).
The park’s area contains two types of habitat colonized by lichens: epiphytic and epilithic (concrete). The highest number of species was found in the epiphytic habitat (31), mainly on tree-bark of Acer platanoides (23 species), Quercus rubra (11) and Fraxinus excelsior (10). Of the 42 species which have been recorded, 7 are among lichens threatened in Poland (CIE印I垶KI et al. 2006), 1 is partly protected, 8 are strictly protected and 1 is under zonal protection. Our research revealed the presence of all previously reported lichen species, and showed the presence of one new species – Evernia prunastri.


Contribution to the bryoflora of Central Poland.
Mosses and liverworts of the Kruszewiec nature reserve (ód province)


This paper presents the results of research conducted in 2009 in the Kruszewiec nature reserve. This reserve is located in ód province, between the villages: Lubochnia, Henryków, Przesiadów and Zaborów, near the town Tomaszów Mazowiecki (19°59’ E 51°35’ N) (Fig. 1). Its whole area is covered with only one forest plant community – Tilio – Carpinetum abietetosum, belonging to the Carpinion betuli alliance.
Sixty-two bryophyte species were recorded during the research – 52 mosses and 10 liverworts. Analysis of the species frequency showed that rare species dominated (29 species – 47% of bryophytes) (Tab. 2). There were four types of main habitat colonized by bryophytes: epigeic, epixylic, epiphytic and epilitic, but they were also noted on the clumps of grass and ferns. The highest number of species was found on the epigeic habitat (41 species). In this group most bryophytes grew on humus (32), fewer on mineral soil (31), mixed litter (15), deciduous (13) and coniferous litter (11).
All bryological data reported from the Kruszewiec nature reserve in the past were compiled and compared with the data collected contemporarily. The presence of 25 species was confirmed and six were not re-found. At the same time 37 new taxa not reported previously from this reserve were noted.


Plant cover of W篹e nature reserve – current status and threatss


Flora of the “W篹e” Reserve comprises 246 species of vascular plants and more than 20 taxa of bryophytes. Among them 29 species of vascular plants are endangered in the flora of Central Poland. The vegetation of the reserve comprises 11 plant communities. Among them there are: 5 thermophilous grassland and meadow communities, 3 xerothermophilous forb fringes and forest edge communities, 1 thicket community, 1 clearing community and 1 forest community with Pinus sylvestris. The most endangered components of the flora reserve are components of thermophilous grasslands. The most valuable are communities with Cirsio – Brachypodion and Festucetum pallentis. The non-forest part of the reserve should be extensively used. Xerothermic grasslands and meadows should be mown or grazed. Grasslands should be mown annually or every two years, earlier than mid-July, excluding about 20% of the area from intervention, each year a different area. Grazing should be allowed from mid-July to late September.


Longhorn beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) communities
of the southern part of the Za喚cza雟ki Landscape Park


Studies on longhorn beetle communities were carried out during 2010 – 2013 in the south-western part of the Za喚cza雟ki Landscape Park, including the nature reserves: “Stawiska”, “Bukowa Góra” and “W篹e”. The examined range was an area of about 4500 ha. During the field studies commonly accepted standard methods of beetle collection were used (such as: sighting of imagines, shaking down into an enthomological umbrella, sweep-netting, attracting to an artificial light source). Rearing of material inhabited by the immature stages of Cerambycidae was also conducted.
Fifty-four species of Cerambycidae  was also conducted. Fifty-four species of Cerambycidae (ca. 28% of the Polish fauna), belonging to five subfamilies were recorded. Population size and frequency of the occurrence of Cerambycidae were determined. Communities of Cerambycidae in 8 forest site types were analyzed. In total, about 2,000 imagines and about 1,000 signs of feeding, larvae and/or pupae were found. Most species (about 60%) were included in the group of not numerous-rare species, the least (about 9%) – not numerous-frequent species. Among the representatives of 11 zoogeographical elements palearctic (Pa) prevail (about 35%), while the least represented were: subpontic (Po) and subcosmopolitan (Ko) – 1.9% each. Most of the species were captured in fresh mixed deciduous forest (about 90%) and fresh mixed coniferous forest (about 52%), while the lowest numbers were found in humid mixed coniferous forest (about 11%) and fresh deciduous forest (about 13%). Analysis of species similarity distinguished such communities as fresh mixed deciduous forest, fresh mixed coniferous forest and fresh coniferous forest, and wet sites, including a community of fresh deciduous forest.


Fox in the Tatras


Fox, a representative of the native fauna of the Tatra Mountains, occurs mainly in the area of the forest. Less often, especially in summer, it can be found above the area of forest. It is the only predator which reaches the uppermost peaks of these mountains. It can be encountered in the Polish Tatras on Mount Rysy (2499 m), and in the Slovakian Tatras on Mount Lomnica (2,632 m). The first information about the fox appeared in the early 18th century. More than two centuries later the reported information was sparse and perfunctory. This situation changed when whole massif of the Tatra Mountains started to be protected as national parks: Polish (TPN) and Slovak (TANAP). Currently, the estimate of the number of foxes in the Tatra Mountains is around 225 – 255 individuals.
At present the fox is regarded as a natural predator, mainly affecting the structure of small mammal populations. Among its prey, especially typical montane species, are snow vole, pine vole, Tatra marmot and, less often, small chamois. The damage caused by the fox in the human economy is secondary. The usability of the fox as a hunted animal mainly concerned the skin. Hunting methods consisted of shooting, iron traps, digging out burrows, and destruction by poison. In earlier times these animals were also caught in specially dug pits, as observed in the case of the wolf.




Comments regarding the doctoral dissertation of Bartosz Jenner:
"Phenology of selected mountain species of Butterflies, and Hopkins’ bioclimatic law"
in the context of nature conservation in the Tatra National Park


Instead of taking the role of reviewers, we are limiting our critique merely to the summary of the discussed doctoral research carried out in the Tatra National Park. At the expense of exterminating more than seven 7500 specimens taken from the protected area of Tatra National Park, a dissertation was prepared which was never intended to be published. The author, while using permits authorizing him to trap single specimens, captured from 1997 to 1999 the following quantities of butterflies:

Boloria pales (DENIS et SCHIFFERMÜLLER, 1775)   979 specimes
Erebia aethiops (ESPER, 1777) 1466
E. euryale (ESPER, 1805) 1758
E. pronoë (ESPER, 1780) – EN 1534
E. manto (DENIS et SCHIFFERMÜLLER, 1775)   955
E. epiphron (KNOCH, 1783)   382
E. gorge (HÜBNER, 1804)   257
E. pandrose (BORKHAUSEN, 1788)   195
                              Total 7526 specimes

Butterflies used for the doctoral research were destroyed (literally mashed) during fat extraction and other useless procedures. Virtually the entire documentation does not exist or was destroyed. If the specimens had at least in part been deposited in the museums of the TPN or the Jagiellonian University, they could have been used as material for Master’s theses and other doctoral research.
Due to the simple way of giving out permits without a complex discernment of potential risks, a lot of threats can be generated for the flora and fauna – leading to the loss of existing biodiversity within the Park. On the other hand, coming to the other extreme – which equals the implementation of a total prohibition of observing and collecting evidence samples – would have a negative impact on the development of many studies, important both for the scientific progress and the Tatra National Park itself. The following realistic monitoring methods can be suggested with respect to researchers carrying out studies in the field:
1. The obligation or commitment to carry a GPS device during research, and random unobtrusive monitoring
    of researchers’ behaviour during field studies;
2. A thorough comprehensive analysis of both reports and the final paper for their compliance with the proposed
    methodology and the method of acquiring live material;
3. The obligation of reporting the researcher’s unethical behaviour, together with the right of cancellation of the
    research permit by the Directorate of the Park, followed by informing the institution delegating the researcher about
    such a decision;
4. The prospect of implementing sanctions such as restrictions in the issue of permits for the scientific institution
    delegating such a researcher, potentially including the revocation of an academic title obtained as a result of such
There is special concern that as of yet, none of the employees of the TPN have become familiar with the content of the discussed dissertation. This does not feel odd, however, because the reason for the entire topic of the dissertation is not particularly interesting to the Park, nor does it have practical implications. At this point another question arises: Whether the subject of all studies carried out within the boundaries of a National Park should arise and be based on needs identified by the Park. This would be a considerable factor strongly restricting the likelihood of activities posing a threat to local nature, carried out merely in order to profit by gaining an academic degree.

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