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PNRP 33(2) – 2014 r.


Significance of vegetation of the “Gościnna Dolina”
Landscape-Nature Protected Complex
in Bielsko-Biała for ecotourism


The "Gościnna Dolina" Landscape-Nature Protected Complex is a place with great diversity of vegetation. In this area 12 different plant communities were noted, representing 6 vegetation classes: Bidentetea, Artemisietea, Phragmitetea, Molinio - Arrhenatheretea, Rhamno - Prunetea, and Querco - Fagetea. The most common association in the study area is the oak-hornbeam forest Tilio - Carpinetum. All of the communities are presented in tables 1 and 2. In "Gościnna Dolina" 381 vascular plant species were also noted. Over half of them are synanthropes, but alien species number only about 15% of all. What is significant is that in the study area many legally protected species rare in Silesian Province were noted (Table 3). 15 mountain species were also noted. Given the qualities of the study area, it is a place with a large potential for ecotourism. To save it, the popularization of this area as an ecotouristic asset would be essential. The best and safest way, from the nature protection point of view, would be to exploit its natural resources.


Bioaccumulation of micro-and macroelements
in the muscle tissue of sea trout (Salmo trutta m. trutta L.)
in various developmental stages


The aim of the study was to assess the level of bioaccumulation of selected macro- and microelements (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ca, Mg) and biomarkers of oxidative stress (2-thiobarbituric acid substances as lipid peroxidation assay, aldehyde and ketonic derivates of protein oxidation, total antioxidant capacity) in the muscle tissue of developmental stages of sea trout (smolts, spawners, adult silver trout) growing in marine and freshwater environments. The study involved 274 fish: 175 smolts, 79 spawners and 20 adult silver trout. In each fish muscle tissue was sampled for the determination of chemical and biochemical parameters. The profile of minerals in the muscle tissue was the following: for smolts Mg > Ca > Zn > Fe > Cu > Mn; for spawners Mg > Ca > Fe > Zn > Cu > Mn, and for adult silver trout Mg > Ca > Zn > Fe > Cu > Mn. The highest level of lipid peroxidation markers was noted in the muscle tissue of spawners. Significantly lower levels of aldehyde and ketone derivatives of oxidatively modified proteins in the muscle tissue of smolts and adult trout indicate the effective adaptive antioxidant defence mechanisms in fish at these developmental stages. Increased activity of proteasome could be an important factor that affects the rate of protein turnover as a result of adaptation to environmental factors. The correlative analysis between bioaccumulation of macro- and microelements as well as oxidative stress biomarker levels in muscle tissue showed the reduction of oxidative stress by maintaining the level of micro-and macronutrients within physiological limits necessary for the antioxidant defence activation in rainbow trout at different developmental stages. The quantitative composition of macro- and microelements in the muscle of fish is associated with their species-specific properties, and environmental and biological factors such as sex and age. The pro- and antioxidative balance depends on the individual adaptability of these organisms to environmental conditions.


Breeding birds in a mosaic agricultural landscape
in the Krzywińsko-Osiecki Landscape Protection Area


Due to high diversity and area (ca. 60% of country) agricultural areas play important role for biodiversity in Poland as well as in European Union. However, a decline of some farmland species also in Poland is observed recently, even in heterogenic, mosaic-like farmland. Presumably, it is caused by agricultural practices, which are too much intensive. Additional threat to farmland birds can pose wind farms which are built mostly in farmed areas. That is why there is a need for detailed description of farmland bird communities in numerous locations in Poland, apart from national monitoring scheme, which covers mainly common species. The goal of the article is to describe breeding bird community of an agricultural area in Krzywińskie Lakeland, located in a Landscape Protection Area. The study was carried out near Wieszkowo, Żelazno and Bielewo (Fig. 1), on two study areas located close to each other with total area of 6.5 km2, dominated by farmed area (90%) (Fig. 1). There are some mid-field wooded patches and belts, shrubs growing in roadsides, as well as small local wet area with a mosaics of rushes (Fig. 1). In the article, the data for breeding season are presented, i.e April - July 2010. Counting in transects (n=20, 10 counts) was principal method used, however all other available information were used, i.e. gained with the aid of counting from points (n=4, 10 counts) and within the scheme of Monitoring of Common Breeding Birds (four plots) (Fig. 2).
There were found 38 breeding and 15 possibly breeding species (Tab. 1). Among them, 33 - 48 species bred only in farmland (mosaics of crop land, meadows, small wood islands and tree and shrub belts) and their density amounted to ca 73.5 pairs/km2. The skylark was most highly dominating species and the next most abundant species were: yellow wagtail, corn bunting, quail, yellowhammer, chaffinch and red-backed shrike. Six species with unfavorable conservation status in Europe were found: red-backed shrike, ortolan bunting, barred warbler, marsh harrier, crane and tawny pipit. Species number (Fig. 3) and bird abundance was similar to observed commonly in Poland. High population density of red-backed shrike, barred warbler and corn bunting indicates large facilities in Poland for preservation of species with unfavorable conservation status in Europe, however the key is to maintain the reasonably high amount and diversity of semi-natural, non-farmed habitats.


Illegal tourist dispersion in the National Tatra Park
area – comparsion of two trails of differing degree of difficulty


Studies on the dispersion of tourists in Tatra National Park was conducted in 2011 in one of the most visited months of the year. Observations showed that the large number of tourists on the trails intensifies the phenomenon of walking off the hiking trails, i.e. dispersion.
Observations were carried in the High Tatras - on the trail leading through the Dolinka za Mnichem (red marks) and on the trail leading from the Dolina Rybiego Potoku by Światówka Roztocka, to the Dolina Pięciu Stawów Polskich (blue marks).
The aims of this study were to determine the level of illegal dispersion, to find out the motives which guided those people, as well as to analyse the damage caused by this phenomenon. Two trails of varying difficulty also provide the opportunity to assess the relationship between the difficulty of hiking trails and the extent of dispersion.
The results showed that the easier and more frequently visited blue trail allowed dispersion significantly more often than the red trail. The main reasons for this were taking pictures, finding access to an illegal viewpoint, and having a meal in a convenient location. Illegal wanderers off the trail were in over half the cases adults. The range of dispersion is usually more than 5 meters from the marked tourist route, but there are also a few places located on the trail which were trampled into extensive patches.



Cucujus cinnaberinus (SCOPOLI, 1763): new sites of the species
in the Bieszczady National Park and in the Bieszczady Mts. 73


Up till now the data on the occurrence of Cucujus cinnaberinus (SCOPOLI, 1763) in the Bieszczady were based on a single report from Stuposiany (NOWICKI 1858).
In the years 2012/2013 two new sites of Cucujus cinnaberinus were recorded in the Bieszczady Mountains. On one of these sites in Wolosate village (Bieszczady National Park area) one larva of Cucujus cinnaberinus was found under the damp bark of a dead aspen tree (18.10.2012). On the second site in Hylaty stream valley (Lutowiska forest division) one beetle of C. cinnaberinus was discovered in a timber yard (12.06.2013).


Preliminary studies on Carabidae and Silphidae (Coleoptera)
in the “Źródlisko Skrzypowe” nature reserve


Studies on the species composition and the structure of assemblies of epigeic beetles (Carabidae) and carrion beetles (Silphidae) were carried out from May to July 2006 in the "Źródlisko Skrzypowe" reserve (north-western Poland, Dobiegniewskie Lakeland, UTM WU57, 52°59' 43.76" N, 15°45'10.44" E), while a protection plan for the reserve was being prepared. Using 10 Barber's type traps 951 individuals belonging to 31 species were captured in a Currant swamp forest [Ribeso nigri - Alnetum SOL. GÓRN. (1975) 1987] and an Alder-Ash forest (Fraxino - Alnetum W. MAT. 1952), growing on the flat bottom of the Kaczynka river valley. From these, 24 species were classified to Carabidae, and 7 to Silphidae. Among species protected by law the following were found: Carabus glabratus, C. nemoralis, C. auratus, C. granulatus and C. violaceus - common species numerous throughout the country. Bembidion mannerheimii was a relatively rare species, first recorded in the Pomeranian Lake District. The most numerous species were: Carabus granulatus, Pterostichus nigrita and Limodromus assimilis, the most numerous carrion beetles were gravediggers Nicrophorus vespilloides, N. vespillo and Oiceoptoma thoracica and Phosphuga atrata. Most individuals and species (respectively 677 and 23) were found in alderash; fewer in the Currant swamp forest (274 individuals and 11 species). The assemblies of epigeic beetles were very different: the Currant swamp forest was inhabited by typical species for open wetlands (Carabus granulatus, Necrophorus vespilio and Pterostichus anthracinus), and the Alder-Ash forest was preferred by mesophilous and mezohigrofilous forest species (Pterostichus nigrita, Limodromus assimilis, Carabus glabratus, C. nemoralis, Nicrophorus vespilloides, Phosphuga atrata, Oiceoptoma thoracica) and mesophilous field species (Pterostichus melanarius, Carabus auratus).

Record of common crossbill Loxia curv irostra
in the tawny owl Strix aluco diet in the Kampinos Forest (central Poland)


The red crossbill inhabits coniferous forests in North and Central America, and Eurasia. In Poland it is recorded primarily during migrations. Rarely, it nests in the mountains or in the north east of the country. Red crossbill occurs in flocks mainly in the winter, during the fruiting of spruce. The remains of one red crossbill were recorded in tawny owl pellets collected under an oak tree in the Roztoka reserve in Kampinos National Park on 10.01.2012. The species was identified based on a well-preserved, characteristic mandible; its size and shape were compared to other materials and guides. Besides red crossbill, we identified 9 other species of birds and 12 species of mammals in pellets. This is the first record of red crossbill in Kampinos National Park. Analysis of tawny owl pellets have been used to determine the species composition of small mammals in many areas. However, it may also be useful in supplementing knowledge on the species composition of small birds in protected areas.


Small mammals of the Landscape-Nature Protected Complex ‘‘Mroga Valley''
based on analysis of tawny owl Strix aluco pellets


We analysed tawny owl pellets collected between 2011 and 2013 in two locations (Rogów, Kołacin) in the Landscape-Nature Protected Complex ‘‘Mroga Valley'' (Lodz province). They contained the remains of 473 individuals of vertebrate prey. There were 391 mammals representing 14 species. The most abundant species in both locations was Myodes glareolus, and Microtus arvalis, Mus musculus and Apodemus flavicollis in the first locality, and Apodemus agrarius and Sorex araneus in the second locality (Tables 1 and 2). The hunting territories of owls covered mosaic landscapes with many habitat types. Among owls' prey, forest species occurred (Myodes glareolus, Apodemus flavicollis), as well as those typical for open fields (Microtus arvalis, Apodemus agrarius), water bodies or marshes (Neomys fodiens, Microtus oeconomus) and the vicinity of built-up areas (Rattus norvegicus, Mus musculus). Microtus subterraneus, rarely captured by tawny owls, was present in two locations. This study revealed most species of ground-dwelling mammals that occur in central Poland and are the potential prey of tawny owls. Finding Microtus agrestis, Arvicola amphibius and Apodemus sylvaticus still remains possible because they were reported for neighbouring areas.

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