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PNRP 34(2) – 2015 r.


The lichens of Narew National Park and its surroundings


Narew NP was established by the Decree of the Council of Ministers dated 1 July 1996. It is located in north-eastern Poland, in the Podlaskie Voivodeship, 30 km west of Bia造stok. The park covers an area of Narew valley between Sura, and Rz璠ziany. In geographical terms, NNP is located in the Dolina Górnej Narwi mesoregion belonging to the North Podlasie Lowland. The most important value of Narew National Park is its unique river system, a network of interconnected channels which flow throughout this area.
The paper presents a list of 153 species of lichens in Narew National Park. In all lichenbiota of Park dominated epiphytes - 75 species over the epiksylic - 61, epilitic - 59 and epigeic - 42. The least populated bryophytes lichen, only 4 species. NPN draws attention to a small part of lichen species placed on the national Red List (CIE印I垶KI et al. 2006), representing only 20% of biota.
The share of each category are as follows: endangered (EN) - 11 species, vulnerable (VU) - 10, near threatened (NT) - 7 and least concern (LC) - 2. The park is a habitat for 21 species under legal protection.


Endangered gentian: Swertia perennis L. –
–An evaluation of species resources in Poland


A rapid decrease in floristic biodiversity has been observed in Europe for about half of century. A dynamic intensification of anthropopressure is considered to be one of the major causes of occurrence acreage and population number shrinking, or even the extinction of numerous species with a narrow ecological niche and high sensitivity to drainage and eutrophication. These unfavourable transformations contribute to the degradation of habitats and higher extinction risk of rare plant species. A representative of this group of plants is felwort, Swertia perennis L. (Gentianaceae) - a rare and endangered gentian species - mainly due to drainage and the increase of agriculture practices in low productive habitats, like fens and mires at low altitudes, along with the abandonment of extensive land use. The key threat for the mountain resources of species is the expansion of the tourism infrastructure, mainly ski routes. Over the last century, felwort was known as "a quite common mire species" in the European mountains, occurring also in lowlands on isolated localities. Collected data shows an evident decline of felworts' localities among different countries in Europe (LIENERT et al. 2002).
The aim of study is to gather information about felwort resources in Poland and to examine the populations' fitness. In order to investigate the number of actual occurrence, existing data were collected and the interviewees were supplemented. Ten populations from lowlands and mountains were chosen together, where a more detailed investigation was conducted during a four-year period. The permanent plots were established, wherein all individuals (rosettes) were counted and the population size was estimated. As an important factor, the habitat conditions were investigated according to the methodology used for the national monitoring of Natura 2000 habitats and species assessment.
Grouped information on the number of species localities demonstrate that most of the lowlands localities are historical. However, new ones were found these last ten years. All of them are located in eastern Poland, giving seven spots in total. The situation in the mountains is more optimistic. Species resources should be estimated to several dozen according to the existing partial evidences. Nevertheless, there is no nationwide data showing the number of felworts' localities in Polish highlands.
Habitat size varied among all populations: from ten square meters to above two hectares. Similarly the number of individuals per population varied sturdily among populations. The highest number of plants, more than 20000 rosettes, was observed in the populations from Masyw Pilska. The lowest - in Rowele, from north-east Poland, where the population size was up to 250 rosettes. Special attention should be placed on the population from υsiniany (north-east Poland), where the number of rosettes has decreased to almost 60% during the years of investigation. The yearly fluctuation of plants' number was low in the mountain localities, and vary more strongly in lowlands.
The percentage of generative adults differ between populations, reaching the average contribution of about 10%. In connection with the fact that a felwort can also reproduce in a vegetative way, this should ensure the survival of the species in the long-term perspective if favourable habitat conditions are maintained. However, the assessment of habitat parameters showed their unfavourable condition outside mountains, mainly due to the changing level of groundwaters, dehydration, and consequently eutrophication and secondary succession. These disorders cause acceleration of secondary succession and stronger competition among the species. Agricultural land use is not as intensive in the mountains; nevertheless there are other significant pressures on ecosystems due to tourism. This situation affects felworts from Massif Pilsko and Zakopane. Optimistically, most of the populations were found within national parks, which gives good future perspectives for conservation.
Results of the study show that felwort needs special attention, particularly in lowlands. Active management should be planned and enforced as a result of the sharp decline of plants and unfavourable condition of habitats. The issue is essential as the country hosts high value resources of felwort in the European Plain.


Plant communities of Kamieniec hill
in Dynów Foothills (Western Carpathians)


Kamieniec hill (452 m a.s.l.) is situated in the Podkarpackie Voivodeship in Dynów Foothills, i.e. part of the Western Carpathians. The hill is famous for the ruins of a medieval castle built in the 14th century. The Kamieniec Castle is one of the greatest attractions of the Czarnorzecko-Strzy穎wski Landscape Park and is one of the most frequently visited objects in the region.
Investigations of plant communities present on the entire hill were conducted in the years 2013 - 2014. Twenty-six phytosociological relevés were taken with the Braun-Blanquet method within forest and non-forest communities, old walls, and outcrops. The forest communities from the class Querco-Fagetea were represented by the alliance Fagion sylvaticae and Carpinion betuli. The non-forest communities were dominated by fresh meadows from the alliance Arrhenatherion elatioris with a substantial share of thermophilic species, while fragmentary xerothermic grassland stands, with a considerable proportion of species from the class Festuco-Brometea, had an insignificant share. The rock communities were characterized by a large share of ferns (Polypodium vulgare, Asplenium trichomanes and A. ruta-muraria), therefore, they were classified as representatives of a poorly developed class Asplenietea rupestrian.


Cartographic materials to examine trends in real estate development
in Kampinoski National Park and its buffer zone


This article presents an analysis of trends in the area of real estate development in Kampinoski National Park and its buffer zone. The work covers the period from the fifties to the eighties of the thirties of the last century. The author made a collection of maps the research tools. She used the cartographic research method for analysis.
The article begins with an introduction and explanation of the purpose of introducing the research. This is followed by an area of research and describes the sources which were used and the criteria for their selection. The work also includes a description of the method and outlines the various stages of the work. Work results are illustrated with examples of map fragments. At the end, conclusions are formulated concerning both the trend in building development within the protected area, as well as the study methods used.
The article also cited examples of other studies that use similar methods.



New stand
of Scarlet elfcup Sarcoscypha austriaca (O. Beck ex Sacc.) Boud.
in Podlasie


The paper presents a new stand of scarlet elfcup Sarcoscypha austriaca (O. BECK ex SACC.) BOUD. in Podlasie (NE Poland). The described location is typically an anthropogenic habitat (urban shrubbery near the municipal combined heat and power station). The author found ascocarps S. austriaca on fallen branches of Acer platanoides, Alnus incana nad Sambucus sp. This is the second stand of this species in the Podlaskie Voivodeship.

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