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PNRP 27(3) – 2008 r.

Lichens of reserve “Krasne” in Knyszy雟ka Forest Landscape Park
(north-eastern Poland)


The paper contains a list of lichens in the nature reserve of Krasne in Knyszy雟ka Forest Landscape Park. Lichens occur on the bark of all tree and shrub species, wood, wooden constructions and soil. Their taxonomic variety is high. As a result of field studies carried out in 1999 and 2005, 104 lichen species from 46 genera were found. The richest in species are the genera of: Cladonia (28 species), Lecanora (10) and Ramalina (5).
Lichens represent all morphological forms. Fruticose lichens are predominant (38.5%). Lichens with crustose and foliose thalli are less common and constitute 34.6% and 23.1%, respectively. Placodiose and squamulose thalli are represented by only 2 species each.
Among 104 lichen species 8 taxa are on the regional list of threatened lichens and allied fungi (CIE印I垶KI 2003 b): Chaenotheca phaeocephala (EN), Bacidia subincompta, Cladonia turgida (VU), C. portentosa, C. squamosa, C. sulphurina (NT), C. ramulosa and Ramalina motykana (DD). On the Red List of extinct and threatened lichens in Poland (CIE印I垶KI et al. 2003) are 29 taxa: 1 in the critically endangered category – CR, 12 in the endangered category – EN, 9 in the vulnerable category – VU, 6 in the near threatened category – NT and 1 in the data deficient category – DD. Out of all the 104 lichen species of Krasne, 30 have been put under legal protection, 24 of which are totally and 6 of which are partially protected.

Contribution to the bryoflora of the planned nature reserve of “Las Nadwelski”
within Welski Landscape Park (NE Poland)


The paper presents the results of one-day bryologizing within the Wel river valley between Lidzbark and Kurojady. The bryological exploration took place during field workshops organized by Bryological Section of Polish Botanical Society in April of 2007. In the valley part studied the river flows in a narrow glacial channel and is bordered by steep slopes overgrown by oak-hornbeam forest and partially by pine forest. Altogether 112 bryophyte species were recorded; 102 mosses and 10 liverworts. 19 of them are under legal protection. The bryophytes showed fair ecological specialization related with the heterogeneity of habitats. Only 15 species were eurytopic and they colonized various types of substratum. Most species occurred exclusively on the ground – 57. Quite numerous were also: the group of obligatory epiphytes – 19 and the group of epixylics – 14. On boulders and rock-like habitats 8 species were noted. Field research revealed some bryophytes that have exhibitied a tendency to spread across Central Europe in the recent years.
As bryological values of the area studied we can point out: the presence of legally protected species (19 taxa), the occurrence of some epiphytic species regarded as vanishing in the country (10) and the occurrence of so called “mountain species” scarcely distributed in lowlands (9).

Alpine bells (Cortusa matthioli L.) in the Gorce Mts. (Western Carpathians)


Alpine bells Cortusa matthioli is a european species with a clearly disjunctive range. It occurs in the Alps, Carpathians and Balkan Mountains as well as in the north-eastern part of Europe. In Poland it is a rare, multizonal mountain species, known from just a few localities within the Carpathians. Since 2001 it has been a strictly protected species in Poland. It is also placed on the Polish Red List within category R (rare and potentially endangered species) and in the Red Data Book (cathegory LR – lower risk species).
There are four regions of abundant occurrence of the Alpine bells in the Gorce Mts., located in the upper parts of the valleys of the υpuszna, Koninka, Roztoka and Kamienica streams (Fig. 1). It grows here in stream-beds, especially in steep, mossy places around springs. It is a plant associated with wet and relatively fertile soils, which contain significant amounts of calcium carbonate. In the Gorce Mts. it occurs mostly in the plots of the Cratoneuretum falcati association. It occurs much more scarcely in more shadowed plots of well-heads, which partly refer to the Caltha laeta – Chaerophyllum hirsutum community or the Petasitetum albi association. Individual specimens also occur in the phytocoenosis of Petasitetum kablikiani.
At the most numerous station of Alpine bells in the Gorce Mts., situated in the υpuszna Valley, grow at least more than fifteen thousand specimens at an altitude of 1010 – 1220 m a.s.l. In the Koninka Valley the population of this species that comprises about 1500 – 2000 individuals (970 to 1030 m a.s.l.) and in the Kamienica Valley about 2000 – 2500 (1040 – 1130 m a.s.l.). The smallest population (about 250) grows in the Roztoka stream valley at an altitude of 1090 – 1160 m a.s.l. (Tab. 1). Flowering specimens as well as juvenile ones and seedlings are numerous in most of these localities. This proves that the condition of these populations is excellent.
The investigations show that the resources of Alpine bells in the Gorce Mts. are much larger than we thought (Tab. 2). Due to their large size and extreme inaccessibility (lack of touristic trails, forest roads and even paths) the populations of Cortusa matthioli do not seem to be threatened in this region. All the localities described above exist within the Gorce National Park.

Cladocera of the nature reserve “Mianów” near Podd瑿ice (ód voivodeship)


The paper concerns the fauna of Cladocera existing in the flood wathers of “Mianów” (commune of Lutomiersk, administrative district of Pabianice, ód voivodeship). Cladocerans fauna was studied in two consecutive years: 2006 – 2007. Not only the mere existence or non-existnece of given species was considered, but also the population size and domination of each species, as wel as its cycle of reproduction. The fact that the fauna remained similar during the two consecutive years indicates that the composition of species is firmly constant. In total, 34 species of Cladocera were found, belonging to 6 families: Sididae – 2 species, Daphniidae – 11, Macrothricidae – 5, Chydoridae – 14, Bosminidae – 1 and Polyphemidae – 1 species. Bisexual reproduction was observed in 25 species (pronouncement males and females from saddle). Species that were caught the most often and existed there the longest were: Daphnia longispina, D. pulex, Scapholeberis mucronata, Macrothrix laticornis, Iliocryptus sordidus, Chydorus sphaericus and Alona rectangula. It is worth to note that as many as 5 species from the Macrothricidae were observed, of which three are new in central Poland: Lathonura rectirostris O.F. MÜLLER, Streblocerus serricaudatus (S. FISCHER) and Acantholeberis curvirostris (O.F. MÜLLER). Other species rare in Poland were also found in the studied flood waters, including Simocephalus serrulatus (KOCH), Ceriodaphnia setosa MATILE and Scapholeberis microcephala LILLIEBORG.

Data concerning Aculeata (Hymenoptera) of the Spalski Landscape Park and adjoining areas


In the years 1981 – 2007 a study on Aculeata was conducted in the Spa豉 Landscape Park (SLP) and adjoining areas (mainly in open habitats). In research material (946 speciemens) 174 species of Aculeata were found, out of which 139 were observed in the Park and 35 in sites adjoining to it. The share of endangered and rare species amongst Aculeata of the Park is 15.9%. Open and forest habitats of the examined area were found to contain 10 endangered species each. There are 130 species of Aculeata previously not observed in the Park, hence the total number of known species of Aculeata in the SLP is 202 at the moment. Among the most interesting Aculeata in the park are: Chrysis iris, Dolichurus corniculus, Miscophus postumus and Hylaeus gredleri. In the sites adjoining to the SLP the following species deserve attention: Chrysis rutilans, Pemphredon austriacus, Lestica alata and Proanthidium oblongatum.

Influence of day time and weather conditions on the activity
of the hermit beetle, Osmoderma eremita SCOP., and their consequences for monitoring


In northern Poland old trees in roadside alleys harbour populations of the hermit beetle, Osmoderma eremita – an endangered beetle living in tree hollows, the species protected in the EU according to the Habitat Directive. In order to design effective conservation measures, it is necessary to conduct a detailed inventory of trees occupied by O. eremita. Searching for remnants (larval excrements, fragments of sclerites etc.) and preimaginal stages of the species in wood mould is the cheapest and fastest inventory method. However, in many cases such sampling is difficult (hollow entrances too narrow or too high above the ground). Moreover, as excrements and remains of beetles may persist for some years, their presence does not always prove the existence of a living population in the tree. Additional information could be obtained by observing adult beetles around hollow entrances. We studied the occupancy of trees with both indirect and direct methods. Beetles were recorded over 34 days (31 VII – 4 IX 2004). In order to estimate the number of occupied trees we used the rarefaction method. The wood mould sampling confirmed the presence of O. eremita in 9 trees, while the second method – the occupancy of 18 of 54 suitable trees (altogether 22 trees). One inspection with wood mould sampling and observing adult beetles allowed to detect of 35% of the occupied trees, whereas 5 inspections – over 70%. We found that there was a positive correlation between the air temperature and the number of observed beetles. The peak of activity occurred during the afternoon hours, between 14:30 and 16:30, when temperatures were over 26˚C, which appeared to be especially appropriate for surveys of O. eremita.

Amphibian fauna of the Wigierski National Park and its buffer zone


The changes in the environment that have happened in recent years, leading to devastation of natural habitats, have caused the number and diversity of batrachofauna to decrease.
Long-term examinations of amphibians, particularly in protected areas, can contribute to the effective protection of this group of vertebrates. The aim of the conducted examinations were: to determine the distribution and number of particular amphibian species in the area of the Wigierski National Park (WNP) and to mark road sections with the highest amphibian mortality during migrations. We also tried to estimate the relationship between the number of amphibian species, water morphometric parameters, Carlson’s Trophic State Index and the number of predatory fish species in 19 chosen lakes.
The studies were carried out in the area of the WNP in the years 1996 – 1998. Field surveys involved using the following techniques: live catching of amphibians, monitoring the voices of mating males as well as looking for amphibians on roads at night, in the light of torches and headlights. Caught specimens were classified to species and the sex of adult specimens was determined. In this study 3321 individuals belonging to 12 species were caught. Amphibians were found in 109 water reservoirs, but reproduction was observed in 82 only. The most common species in the Wigierski National Park were: the common frog Rana temporaria, common toad Bufo bufo, smooth newt Triturus vulgaris and moor frog Rana arvalis. Less numerous were: the pool frog Rana lessonae, edible frog R. esculenta, common spadefoot Pelobates fuscus and common tree frog Hyla arborea. Species found only in some regions of the Park were: the fire-bellied toad Bombina bombina, warty newt Triturus cristatus, natterjack Bufo calamita and green toad B. viridis. In the WNP area we did not observe the marsh frog Rana ridibunda.
We also penetrated 800 km of roads and tried to estimate amphibian mortality. Specimens from 11 species were observed – the most common, constituting about 72% of all dead specimens, were Bufo bufo and Rana temporaria. These data were used to select stretches of the roads with highest amphibian mortality (Fig. 1). In summer, the population of the smooth newt was decreasing with the increase of the depth and surface of the water reservoir, whereas in spring the size of the population of this species was correlated with Carlson’s trophic state index. A smaller number of amphibian species was observed in deeper lakes. It was limited also due to the number of of predatory fish species, although this relation wasn’t statistically significant.

The large nature reserve as a basis of integrated nature conservation
of scattered populations of steppe plants in the vicinity of Pi鎍zów


Góry Pi鎍zowskie (Pi鎍zów Hills) is a calcareous elevation of the Ma這polska Upland, stretching from the North-East through Pi鎍zów towards towards South-West and up to Stopnica. This area is covered by thermophilous grasslands with species typical for steppe vegetation. The most precious element is the thistle Carlina onopordifolia which has 4 natural stands and 1 secondary one in this region. Other steppe plants, rarely noted in the flora, are Adonis vernalis, Linum hirsutum, Cerasus fruticosa and Stipa capillata. Moreover, there are stands of extremely rare Mediterranean species as Dorycnium germanicum, Lathyrus latifolius and Reseda phyteuma. Small populations are formed by Orchis ustulata, Carlina acaulis, Pulsatilla pratensis, Bothriochloa ischaemum, Carex humilis and others. Such a dense concentration of floristic rarities encouraged environmentalists to take endeavors to protect the most valuable fragments of Góry Pi鎍zowskie within a nature reserve. As a result, in 1960 floristic reserve “Skowronno” (1.93 ha) was established for the protection of steppe grasslands. There were no stands of Carlina onopordifolia, which are the third most abundant population in Poland. Thus, nature reserve “Skowronno” does not fulfill all the requirements concerning the protection of the most important steppe species, forming small, isolated populations. Also, it does not protect all the patches of xerothermic plant associations, but only fragments thereof (Adonido – Brachypodietum, Inuletum ensifoliae, Sisymbrio – Stipetum capillata, Origano – Brachypodietum and Thalictro – Salvietum pratensis). Efficient protection of small populations of xerothermic and meadow plant species can be ensured by a large nature reserve, because only in rural landscape, free from intense agriculture and industrial activity are there favorable conditions for integration of scattered, isolated fragments of plant communities. It is therefore proposed establish a nature reserve covering the whole southern slope westwards from Pi鎍zów including nature reserve “Skowronno” and the part of slope situated eastwards from the town up to Pasturka (Fig. 1). However, isolated stands of Carlina onopordifolia and other xerothermic species in Bogucice should be protected as an ecological ground.

Problems of vegetation conservation in the present-day structure of nature reserves in Poland


The paper deals with the current structure of the number, area and conservation subjects of the network of nature reserves in Poland, as well as the role played by this form of nature protection in the maintenance of biodiversity and landscape protection. Recently, the network of nature reserves distinctly increased, because since 2001 the 131 new reserves, of a total area amounting to 21 778 ha,have been created, while 13, totalling to 4498 ha, ceased to exist. The borders of more than 30% of the reserves created formerly were changed. At the end of 2007 the list included 1420 nature reserves covering 169 273 ha (average 119.21 ha), i.e. 0.54% of the country’s territory. The greatest number of nature reserves occur in the Mazovia Province (176) and the smallest one (35) in the Opole Province, which makes a fivefold difference.
The most important plant community type is forest vegetation, therefore forest reserves are the most numerous in all provinces. Their share varies from 25.81% in the West Pomerania Province to 73.02 % in the Silesia Province. They protect from 10.76% (in the Kujawy-Pomerania Province) to 75.21% (in the Opole Province) of total area of nature reserves in respective provinces, whereas the country average is 37.54%. In these reserves ca. 80 forest association and about 15 scrub communities are protected. Other types of reserves, playing crucial role in nature conservation, are peatland (161), floristic (152), faunistic (136) and landscape reserves (132).
For the purpose of vegetation and flora conservation non-forest reserves are important i.e. floristic, steppe, halophyte, peatland and aquatic reserves. A supporting role is played by faunistic, landscape and geological ones. In terms of habitat conditions a specific group are steppe reserves occurring on sunny slopes and halophytic reserves covering salty soils. Aquatic reserves contain interesting flora and fauna, which are often very well-developed habitats of waterbirds. Some of the sites are highly ranked and therefore they are listed by Ramsar Convention because they met criteria for wetlands of international importance as waterbird habitats. One nature reserve (ㄆknajno Lake) is listed as Biosphere Reserve.

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