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Strona główna arrow Parki Narodowe i Rezerwaty Przyrody

PNRP 34(3) – 2015 r.


Expansion of Iphiclides podalirius (Linnaeus, 1758) (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae)
on Podkarpacie Region (SE Poland) in 2010 -2014


This article presents the expansion of the butterfly Iphiclides podalirius (Linnaeus, 1758), a species that is legally protected and endangered in Poland. The authors conducted field work from 2010 to 2014 in the Podkarpacie region covering four macroregions (Beskidy Lesiste, Beskidy Środkowe, Pogórze Środkowobeskidzkie and Kotlina Sandomierska). The article presents a total of 101 records collected from 60 new localities distributed in 27 (23 new) UTM squares. Due to the large number of observations and the long period of research, authors have established the time distribution of the occurrence of adult forms in the Podkarpacie region. Such a significant increase of new localities of I. podalirius can be explained by the coexistence of a few favorable factors for this species. The most important being changes taking place in recent years in agriculture and climate. In Poland, I. podalirius reaches its northern range limit, which is associated with fluctuations in the number of localities in different years. In this case, it is very important for the protection of this species to preserve a sufficient number of habitats which can be colonized during expansion. 


State of knowledge on the butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera)
of Warta-Widawka Landscape Park


Between 2011 and 2014, research on Lepidoptera in Warta-Widawka Landscape Park was conducted to assert spatial distribution and differentiation of species. The butterflies were caught in 7 permanent sites, located in the environmentally most prized regions of the Park. The regions were: Warta valley in Strońsko, "Dolina Grabi" nature-landscape complex, "Góry Wapienne" nature-landscape complex, "Winnica" nature reserve, "Hołda" nature reserve, "Korzeń" nature reserve and "Góra Charlawa" ecological ground. Overall, 837 species in 53 families were recorded, including 76 species new to the Łódź Voivodeship. Especially noteworthy were: 2 species not previously recorted in Poland (Blastobasis glandulella and Phalonidia udana) and 9 species included on the "Red List of Threatend Animals in Poland" (Zygaena carniolica, Apomyelois bistriatella, Papilio machaon, Limenitis populi, Apatura ilia, Apatura iris, Lycaena dispar, Drymonia velitaris, Nola cristatula). The collected material also contained 33 species rarely found in Poland. They include Eriocrania chrysolepidella, Depressaria sordidatella, D. ultimella, Hypatopa inunctella, Coleophora coronillae, C. silenella, Stomopteryx remisella, Syncopacma cinctella, Anarsia spartiella, Endothenia nigricostana, Lobesia virulenta, Eucosma aemulana, Notocelia tetragonana, Barbara herrichiana, Pammene giganteana, Oxyptilus distans and Glyptoteles leucacrinella. The number of species recorded in Warta-Widawka Landscape Park constitutes 25.7% of all species of Lepidoptera found in Poland.


Changes of the ichthyofauna in the stream
Czerwona Woda (Góry Stołowe National Park)
after construction of the dam reservoir


As part of the ichthyological monitoring of watercourses of Góry Stołowe National Park, the study was conducted in September 2014. It had two main objectives: A/ the assessment of species composition, abundance, density and population structure of the dominant native species of fish after 5 years in the stream Czerwona Woda. Fish were caught by the same team, at the same sites and with the same equipment as in the previous period.); B / due to the fact that the species composition of the ichthyofauna of Czerwona Woda had changed as a result of a private, arbitrary introduction which included several alien and invasive fish species, it was decided to drain the water in order to remove them from the area of Góry Sołowe National Park. In addition to the native brown trout (Salmo trutta m. fario), roach (Rutilus rutilus), perch (Perca fluviatilis), silver bream (Abramis bjoerkna) and tench (Tinca tinca) numerous were found, as well as two species regarded as invasive in Poland: Prussian carp (Carassius gibelio) and American Crayfish Orconectes limosus. The total of 6 sites yielded 59 specimens of brown trout. Monitoring studies showed a reduction in the occurrence of trout in Czerwona Woda and a decrease in its density and biomass. There were no individuals with a total length of more than 22 cm. The presence of alien fish species in Czerwona Woda basin is a result of uncontrolled and arbitrary stocking activity of a "man with a bucket". According to our evaluation, a number of roach and perch fry has remained in the reservoir, posing a danger of "repopulation explosion". In effect the expensive and time-consuming procedure of catching and removing the unwelcome fish species in Góry Stołowe National Park will have to be repeated in 4-5 years.


Herpetofauna of Białe Ługi nature reserve


Białe Ługi mire nature reserve is located in the central part of the Świętokrzyskie province (Kielce county, Daleszyce commune). The reserve has an area of 408.44 ha, mostly consisting of raised and transitional mires. Forest communities are mostly alder, riparian, swamp, mixed coniferous and fresh coniferous forests, with a significant share of scrub communities. Meadows cover only 6% of the reserve. The only major watercourses are two streams - Czarna, with its spring in the southern part of the reserve, and a nameless left tributary. The remaining watercourses are ditches constructed for drainage of the mire. There are only small reservoirs in the reserve, located mainly in the southern part, created by beaver dams on the Czarna.
The study was conducted in 2013-2014. The aim was to determine the incidence, distribution and phenology of amphibians and reptiles, as well as the threats and proposed protective measures.
Białe Ługi reserve showed a number of the following species of amphibians: smooth newt Lissotriton vulgaris L., alpine newt Ichthyosaura alpestris Laur., European tree frog Hyla arborea L., common toad Bufo bufo L., European green toad Bufotes viridis Laur., edible frog Pelophylax esculentus L., pool frog Pelophylax lessonae Cam., moor frog Rana arvalis Nilss. and common frog Rana temporaria L. Reptilians were represented by sand lizard Lacerta agilis L., viviparous lizard Zootoca vivipara Jacquin, slow worm Anguis fragilis L., grass snake Natrix natrix L. and common European adder Vipera berus L. Phenological studies concerned on two species of amphibians: the common toad and common frog.
The most significant threat is drainage of the meadows belonging to Słopiec village, located north of the reserve. This results in actual drying of the area, causing an imbalance in water conditions in the adjacent reserve. Another threat is the presence of a poultry farm in Huta Szklana village, located less than 1 km west of the border of the reserve. Pollution from farms can permeate into groundwater, causing contamination of mires and water reservoirs. Penetration of the area by the local population to periodically collect mushrooms and fruits is a relatively minor threat.


Herpetofauna of Słopiec nature reserve and water reservoir in Borków


Słopiec mire-forest nature reserve is located in the central part of the Świętokrzyskie province, adjacent to the village of Zachełmie, 12 km southeast of Kielce. The reserve covers an area of 8.18 hectares, most of which are mires, now largely superseded by forest communities, mainly oak-hornbeam, alder, deciduous and mixed forests. The main object of protection is a transitional mire located in the basin in the valley of Belnianka River, and more precisely - rare species of marsh plants occurring there.
The study also concerned the water reservoir in Borków, located 1.2 km southwest of the reserve. It is an artificial reservoir on Belnianka River, used as a recreational area, mainly for swimming, water sports and fishing. The surface area of the reservoir is 35 ha and its depth reaches up to 2.5 m. The study was also carried out in the surroundings of the reservoir, as far as the Słopiec-Borków road. The entire area of research (together with Słopiec reserve) covered 192 hectares.
Research was carried out in 2013-2014. The aim was to determine the occurrence and distribution of amphibians and reptiles, threats and postulated protective measures, and the biology and phenology of selected species.
The following amphibian species were found in the area: smooth newt Lissotriton vulgaris L., common toad Bufo bufo L., European green toad Bufotes viridis Laur., edible frog Pelophylax esculentus L., moor frog Rana arvalis Nilss. and common frog Rana temporaria L. Reptilians were represented by sand lizard Lacerta agilis L., viviparous lizard Zootoca vivipara Jacquin, slow worm Anguis fragilis L., grass snake Natrix natrix L. and common European adder Vipera berus L. The study also included the examination of the phenology and reproductive biology of two species of amphibians: the common toad and common frog.
The observed threats included the penetration of the area by humans, especially the area around the water reservoir in Borków. This results in treading, littering and primarily grass fires. Due to heavy traffic on the Słopiec-Borków road, numerous amphibians (rarely reptiles) have been run over. Amphibians are killed most often during spring migration, because of trails extending between the surrounding forests and water reservoir in Borków.



Materials for the assessment of the biodiversity of Białowieża Forest.
New to science species of organisms described from Białowieża Forest


Studoes in Białowieża Forest carried out for more than 150 years have shown the presence of thousands of species of organisms on its territory. Apart from species and forms known to science already in the mid-19th century, on the basis of specimens collected in Białowieża Forest, species of insects new to science were described. Along with the increased intensity of research, the number of species new to science also increased. Many of the described species new to science over time were recognized as synonyms, forms or subspecies of those already known. Sometimes, the description did not fulfill the criteria provided by the codex of biological nomenclature.
This publication contains a list of species new to science described from Białowieża Forest verified according to present monographic papers devoted to chosen groups of organisms. The list contains 102 species, among them: 2 bacteria, 46 fungi, 1 lichens, 2 algae, 16 protozooans, 1 trematode, 2 gastrochids, 7 nematods, 13 mites an d 12 insects.
Some of the species described from Białowieża Forest were later found in other territories (e.g. polyporaceous fungi: Dendipratulum bialowiezense Domański 1965, Aurantiporus priscus Niemela et al. 2012, Aporpium macroporum Niemela et al. 2012, Dichomitus albidofuscus (Domański) Domański 1966) but most of the listed species is known until now only from Białowieża Forest. Due to the fact that Białowieża Forest does not have the conditions for endemics to form, it is necessary to believe that many of the species described from here are relics of primeval forests. The list shows a great biodiversity of Białowieża Forest and also intensity large number of studies carried out in this area.

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