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,,PNRP’’ 27(2) - 2008 r.

Barlinek-Gorzów Landscape Park as a refugium
of rare and endangered vascular plant species


The study was aimed at obtaining knowledge on the resources of rare and threatened vascular plant species occurring within the Barlinek-Gorzów Landscape Park (BGLP), and at delimiting areas of their maximum concentration. The relevant data were collected in 1998 – 2002 by performing floristic and ecological surveys that accounted for the full diversity of habitats. In addition, cartogram maps of 1 km grid cell size were developed, as specified by “Distribution Atlas of Vascular Plants in Poland”.
The list of rare and threatened plants occurring in Western Pomerania and in Poland consists of 136 species, almost half of them missing at present from the studied area, e.g.: Botrychium lunaria (PLV, PZE), Coronopus squamatus (PLE, PZV), Crepis praemorsa (PZE), Cuscuta epithymum (PZV), Drosera anglica (PLE, PZV), Jovibarba sobolifera (PZV), Lycopodiella inundata (PLV, PZE), Moneses uniflora (PZV) and Platanthera bifolia (PZV). The species studied are mostly native taxa, associated primarily with deciduous forests (Querco – Fagetea class), moist meadows (Molinio –– Arrhenatheretea class), xerothermal grasslands (Festuco – Brometea class) and aquatic habitats (Lemnetea and Potametea classes).
The highest concentration of contemporary sites supporting the perishing species was found in the headwater part of the P這nia valley, particularly in the surroundings of the villages of 砰dowo and Równo (the “Pe軟ikowe sitowisko” [Globeflower’s Rushy Ground] planned reserve, the “Skalisty Jar Libberta” [Rocky Ravine of Libbert] reserve). In the central and southern part of the Park, the threatened species proved to be concentrated mainly in the planned reserves of “Lilie Wodne” [Water Lilies] and “Buczyny Barlineckie” [Barlinek Beech Forests] as well as the vicinity of the “Markowe B這ta” [Markowe Marshes] reserve and the Okno forester’s lodge. The sites of the threatened species should be preserved; to this end, they should be monitored on a permanent basis. In addition, no effort should be spared to establish the natural reserves that have been proposed and planned for years.

Vascular plants of former settlements
in Warta Mouth National Park and its neighbourhood


The object of this research is vascular flora of former settlements abondend after the end of the Second World War, especially species connected with human activity, in the area of Warta Mouth National Park and its neighbourhood. Data collected in 50 releves were analysed. The taxonomical and biological (life form) structure and occurrence frequency of antropophytes was presented. An attempt was made to classify samples with regard to their surroundings.
Among the 75 vascular plant species that were found, 38 are dependent on human, mainly kenophytes and cultivated species. The richest in species is the Rosaceae family. As regards life forms, trees and shrubs predominate. The most often observed antropophytes are Lamium purpureum, Syringa vulgaris, Lamium album, Galanthus nivalis, Ribes rubrum, R. uva-crispa, Malus domestica.
The flora of former settlements is rather homogeneous. The very high values of the similarity coeficient between settlements divided into four groups with respect to their surroundings (village, field, meadow, cultivated pines) confirm this thesis. These groups do not differ in terms of the mean number of species. Also, the position on the bottom or outside the river valley does not affect the mean number of species, whereas the high similarity coefficient confirms that the flora in these places is uniform.
Former settlements stand out from and diversify the landscape due to their floristic properties and function as a local mainstay for organisms that require shaded and sheltered places. They are a special kind of environmental islands and improve the local biodiversity.

Phytoplankton of water ecosystems in the Biebrza National Park


The taxonomic composition, species abundance and biomass of phytoplankton communities as dependent on water physico-chemical parameters were analyzed at ten research sites located in the main stream of the Biebrza River, its tributaries and old river beds in May and July 1999 (Fig. 1).
Considerable differences were observed in the physicochemical properties of water in the main stream, tributaries and old river beds. Irrespective of the season, these differences were the most distinct in the case of the physicochemical parameters of water samples collected from an old river bed not connected to the main river channel (station 5 – group IV, Fig. 2). They included, inter alia, higher concentrations of total nitrogen and calcium as well as a different color of the water (Table 1).
The number of algal taxa identified in the main stream of the Biebrza River, its tributaries and old river beds varied from 11 to 27 in May, and from 16 to 37 in August. The greatest taxonomic diversity was observed in the communities of diatoms and green algae (Fig. 3, Table 2).
There were substantial differences in the biomass and abundance of planktonic algae. In the spring phytoseston the abundance and biomass in the main stream of the river ranged from 0.6 to 1.7 mln individ. dm-3, and from 0.5 to 6.1 mg dm-3, respectively (Fig. 4). In the summer the respective values were 100 to 800 000 individ. l-1 and 0.1 to 17.6 mg l-1 (Fig. 5). The phytoseston was most often dominated by diatoms and crytophytes.
In the spring phytoseston the biomass in the tributaries (stations no. 8 – 10) and old river beds (stations no. 5 – 6) remained within a similar range as in the main stream of the Biebrza River (Fig. 4), while in the summer the total phytoseston abundance in three old river beds (stations no. 5, 6 and 7) varied from 0.4 to 6.1 mln individ. l-1, and biomass – from 0.4 to 7.7 mg l-1 (Fig. 5). The species diversity of algal communities, especially in old river beds, was generally greater. This resulted, most probably, from the instability and spatial differentiation of the physicochemical parameters of water.

Buprestidae (Coleoptera) of the Kozienicka Forest


Puszcza Kozienicka (Kozienicka Forest) is a vast (300 km2) forest complex in Central Poland, located between the city of Radom, the Wis豉 and Radomka rivers and the road from Radom to Pu豉wy. The studies on buprestid beetles in this area were carried out since 1990 until 2007, using standard entomological methods, particularly by rearing preimaginal stages. The aim of these studies was to summarise the knowledge about the buprestid beetles found in Puszcza Kozienicka and to analyse the effectiveness of the actual methods of protection in this area.
46 species of Buprestidae (about 53% of Polish fauna) have been found in Puszcza Kozienicka (Table 1). The most common in this area are Agrilus angustulus, A. viridis, A. biguttatus, Anthaxia godeti, Chalcophora mariana and Trachys minuta. Several species extremely rare in Poland, like Dicerca berolinensis, Poecilonota variolosa, Palmar dives, P. rutilans, Phaenops knoteki, Coraebus undatus, Agrilus graminis, A. mendax, A. salicis and Trachys scrobiculata, have also been found. 4 species (Phaenops knoteki, Anthaxia helvetica, A. nigrojubata incognita and Coraebus undatus) reach the north border of the geographical range.
44 buprestid species found in Puszcza Kozienicka are saproxylic and only two (Trachys minuta and T. scrobiculata) are boring mines in leaves at larval stages. The larvae of T. minuta develop in leaves of trees, whereas the larvae of T. scrobiculata develop in herbaceous plants. The larval host plants (from 41 species: 35 deciduous and 6 coniferous) have been identified for 38 buprestid species (Table 1). 27 species of buprestid beetles have been determined to rear on deciduous trees and bushes, 11 on coniferous plants. The highest number of host plants have been found for Agrilus viridis (7 species of plants), A. olivicolor and Chrysobothris igniventris (5 species). The greatest number of Buprestidae feed on Pinus sylvestris (8 species) and Quercus robur (7 species). Some plants have been determined as new for particular buprestid species (Abies alba and Pseudotsuga taxifolia for Chrysobothris igniventris, Quercus rubra and Sorbus aucuparia for Agrilus angustulus and Populus x gileadensis for Agrilus ater).
In Puszcza Kozienicka the Buprestidae larvae, depending on the species, feed on thin branches (Agrilus angustulus, A. convexicollis, A. cuprescens, A. derasofasciatus), thick branches and trunks (Dicerca alni, D. berolinensis, Phaenops cyaneus, P. knoteki, Agrilus ater, A. biguttatus) and also in stumps (Chalcophora mariana, Buprestis novemmaculata) (Figs. 1, 2, 3).
Imaginal host plants have been identified only for few species. Seven species (Anthaxia godeti, A. helvetica, A. morio, A. nigrojubata incognita, A. nitidula nitidula, A. nitidula signaticollis and A. quadripunctata) have been found feeding on flowers, Agrilus mendax on Sorbus aucuparia leaves (Photo 1) and Trachys minuta on leaves of Salix caprea. Buprestid larvae in Puszcza Kozienicka feed mainly on not so decayed material, some of them even on living trees and bushes (Palmar dives, Coraebus undatus and Agrilus viridis). In dead but still hard and dry wood Chalcophora mariana, Buprestis novemmaculata, B. octoguttata and sporadically Dicerca alni develop.
Almost all Buprestidae found in Puszcza Kozienicka are forest species, and only Trachys scrobiculata is typical for open areas. Several species have been identified as pirophylic (Melanophila acuminata, Phaenops cyaneus, P. formaneki, Anthaxia godeti and Chrysobothris igniventris). Only few species (Anthaxia quadripunctata, Agrilus olivicolor, A. mendax and Trachys minuta) can develop in temperate shadow, whereas the rest are thermophilous and photophilous.
The species composition of Buprestidae in Puszcza Kozienicka has been modified by human activity. Particularly, some species typical of primeval forests have been probably eliminated from this area. There are 15 reserves in Puszcza Kozienicka, but human activity is, in the author’s opinion, too intensive to effectively protect some of the buprestids in these areas. There are too few decaying and dead trees, especially still standing ones, that remain,and could serve as material for larvae of many species. Only about 3% of Puszcza Kozienicka is under protection, which in the author’s opinion is not enough – at least 5 – 10% of all forest complexes should be protected. Buprestids have been found in 10 reserves (Tables 1, 3). The highest number of species have been found in the reserves of Brze幡iczka (14 species), Zago盥穎n (13 species) and Jedlnia (10 species). In some reserves very rare species have been found, such as Agrilus delphinensis and A. mendax in Brze幡iczka, Dicerca alni, Poecilonota variolosa in Jedlnia, Agrilus obscuricollis in Pionki, Agrilus subauratus and Trachys scrobiculata in Zago盥穎n and A. mendax in Za豉manek. In the Ponty, Zago盥穎n and Za豉manek reserves also some mountain species such as Anthaxia nigrojubata incognita and Phaenops knoteki connected with fir have been found in the northern localities. A total of 27 species (only 59% of the buprestid fauna from Kozienice Forest) have been found in all the reserves, which indicates that the actual protection of valuable fauna in Puszcza Kozienicka is not sufficient. Beyond the borders of the reserves many rare species like Dicerca berolinensis, Palmar rutilans, P. dives, Anthaxia chevrieri, Chrysobothris chrysostigma, Coraebus undatus, Agrilus auricollis, A. convexicollis, A. graminis and A. salicis have been found.
Because of their rarity, geographical range (northern localities) or endangered status, some species were recommended for putting under special protection. These species need more attention in protection programmes designed for the reserves and the entire Kozienice Landscape Park, as well as protection programmes concerning the forest districts of Radom, Kozienice and Zwole. The protection programmes should embrace the following species: Dicerca berolinensis, Poecilonota variolosa, Palmar dives, P. rutilans, Phaenops knoteki, Anthaxia nigrojubata incognita, Chrysobothris chrysostigma, Coraebus undatus, Agrilus auricollis, A. delphinensis, A. graminis, A. mendax, A. obscuricollis, A. salicis, A. subauratus and Trachys scrobiculata. Three of them (P. knoteki, C. undatus and A. mendax) are in the Polish red book of vanishing and endangered species.
Probably some buprestid species typical of primeval forests are now extinct in this area because of the replacement of natural forests by secondary forests. To protect the valuable species of Buprestidae, increasing the protected reserve areas and leaving some decaying tree trunks in the forest are necessary. Protection of host plants and specific habitats is also necessary to save some particular rare species of buprestid beetles.

The distribution of the Longhorn Beetles (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae)
on the terrain of the Reserve “Wysokie Bagno” in the Bia這wie瘸 Forest


The main goal of the study was to examine the distriubution of beetles from the Longhorn Beetles (Cerambycidae, Coleoptera) on the territory of the “Wysokie Bagno” Reserve in the Bia這wie瘸 Forest. The research was conducted during various fenologic periods in years 2005 – 2007. The presence of 34 species has been affirmed on the territory of the reserve.
The species belong to four subfamilies: Lepturinae (18), Laminae (8), Cerambycinae (5) and Aseminae (3), and occurred in all the six sub-divisions (476A, 476B, 477A, 477B, 502C, 502E), and also in six plant communities (Sphagno girgensohnii – Piceetum, Betulo pubescentis – Piceetum, Carici elongatae – Alnetum, Circaeo – Alnetum, overgrowing sedge community (meadow), Tilio – Carpinetum circaetosum). The most valuable, and also rich in species of Cerambycidae has been the plant association of Sphagno girgensohnii – Piceetum, on the area of which 26 species have been found, constituting 76.5%. This remain of the Siberian taiga also differed from other five in terms of faunistic similarity, hosting a separate, specific group of longhorn beetles. This specific environment is rare, which is demonstrated by the insect fauna existing there that includes two vulnerable species (V): Evodinus borealis and Leioderes kollari, as well as five species identified as rare (R): Acmaeops septentrionis, Pedostrangalia pubescens, Cyrtoclytus capra, Monochamus saltuarius and Pogonocherus hispidulus. Evodinus borealis has been found in the studied territory on the dandelion (Taraxacum officinale WEB.) being is a new feeding plant for this species.

Materials to knowledge of robber flies (Diptera: Asilidae)
in the Spa豉 Landscape Park with regard to Natura 2000 Sites


As a result of faunistic investigations of robber flies in the Spa豉 Landscape Park, compiled with data known from the literature, 36 species of Asilidae were found, including 32 species collected by the author in years 2003 – 2005. Studies were carried out in different types of habitats, including Natura 2000 sites. In Natura 2000 area of “Lasy Spalskie” twenty-seven species of robber flies were noted, while only seven were found in “Dolina Pilicy”. More than a half of the recorded species were noted in the area of the park and Natura 2000 areas for the first time. Among the Asilidae species the most interesting were: 1/ new species in the ód Upland: Cyrtopogon lateralis (FALL.), Dioctria linearis (FABR.) and Tolmerus atripes LOEW; 2/ species rare in Poland found in the area of ód Upland: Dioctria rufipes (DE GEER), Epitriptus arthriticus (ZELL.), Erax barbatus (SCOP.) and Neoitamus cothurnatus (MEIG.).

The ecological awareness of people living
in the Babiogórski National Park buffer zone


The survey presented in this paper was conducted among 289 adult inhabitants of the Babiogórski National Park (BgPN) buffer zone (Table 1, Fig. 2).
The respondents estimate the state of the environment in Poland quite accurately – the majority of them regards it as considerably polluted. The state of the environment in at the place of residence is generally described by the respondents as quite good, but relatively more often they indicate higher pollution of waters and forests (Fig. 4). Inhabitants are aware of natural and culture values of the local territory and see the need for environmental protection, but as the most important need they identified the profitability of proecological activities (Fig. 5). Many of the respondents (51%) reacted negatively to the establishing of the BgPN, but almost everyone (90%) declare their understanding for environmental protection. The living conditions within the buffer zone were evaluated by the local inhabitants. The majority regarded their possibilities of employment, prospects of life and culture as the worst among the components of their living conditions (Fig. 8). Most of the respondents positively evaluated the management of natural resources (Fig. 9) and the Park authorities’ activity was regarded as good by half of them (Fig. 10). The inhabitants of the BgPN, similarly to respondents from other parks, see the necessity for actions focused on the improvement of tourist and economic attractiveness of the region that should be carried out by the Park administration and other institutions involved in nature conservation. They also expect educational undertakings (education of the local community) to be implemented by the Park staff.

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