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Izba Administracji Skarbowej w Białymstoku
Strona główna arrow Parki Narodowe i Rezerwaty Przyrody

PNRP 34(4) – 2015 r.


Lichens of the historical Park in Choroszcz (Podlasie, NE Poland)


The paper presents a list of lichen species collected in the historical Branicki Park, which is located in Choroszcz (Podlaskie Voivodeship). Four types of substrates colonize the lichens in the park area: bark of trees, rock (concrete), wood and other substrate (metal). The largest number of species was found on the bark (35), mainly on bark of Fraxinus excelsior (28 species), Tilia cordata (22) and T. platyphyllos (19). In total 53 species have been recorded. 7 species belong to the group of endangered lichens in Poland (Cieśliński et al. 2006), 3 are partially protected, 2 are under strict protection.

The vegetation of "Grabica" reserve after 14 years of protection


The flora of "Grabica" Nature reserve includes 129 species of vascular plants. At least 5 species of protected or rare flora of the region has disappeared since 1998. Vegetation of the reserve consists of 13 communities, including: 4 forest and scrub communities, 1 herbs community, 2 water and 6 rushes. Peat bog vegetation diminished by over 10 plant communities at the turn of the nineteenth century. Currently, the reserve vegetation is dominated by forest communities, which covers about 90% of its surface. Alders dominate here (Ribeso nigri-Alnetum and Sphagno squarrosi-Alnetum). Forest communities are subject to anthropogenic degeneration. Herbaceous vegetation grows on the northern and south-western fragment of the landmark. Typical transition and high mires communities were completely destroyed. Lack of active protection in the reserve has caused vegetation to transform and the return of the forest on the protected peat bog.

Minute tree-fungus beetles (Coleoptera: Tenebrionoidea: Ciidae)
of Kampinos National Park fauna


This paper introduces complex data on beetles of the family Ciidae found in Kampinos National Park, while integrating Mazovian fauna and specimens gathered by Wojciech Mączyński and deposited in the Górnośląskie Museum in Bytom. Until now only a few representatives of this family were known from the area of the park. This paper provides data on 22 species (out of 44 noted in Poland) recently caught in the park. Among the species found in the described research, as many as 14 were already collected by Wojciech Mączyński at the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th century. This proves their constant presence on the Mazovian Lowland considered an area that is poor in large forest complexes. As a result of the conducted research, 5 species new to the Mazovian Lowland were found: Cis festivus, C. punctulatus, C. pygmaeus pygmaeus, Ennearthron palmi i Orthocis alni. Thus the number of Ciidae species known from the Mazoviam Lowland now equals 32. The rare and very rare species found, such as: Cis fissicornis, C. punctulatus, C. pygmaeus pygmaeus, C. rugulosus, Orthocis lucasi, Sulcacis bidentulus or Ennearthron palmi, which is considered to be a relic of primeval forests, may serve as a tool for valorising the forest ecosystems of Kampinos Forest and proves their long-lasting permanence.

Herpetofauna of Nadnidziański Landscape Park


Research was conducted in 2013 - 2014 at the 23,164 hectare Nadnidziański Landscape Park. It concerned the occurrence and distribution of amphibians and reptiles, the biology and phenology of selected species and the existing threats.
Created in 1986, Nida Landscape Park is the largest park in the Ponidzie Landscape Park System. There are 9 nature reserves within the park: "Góry Wschodnie'', "Grabowiec'', "Krzyżanowice'', "Pieczyska'', "Przęślin'', "Skorocice'', "Skotniki Górne'', "Skowronno'' and "Winiary Zagojskie''. The axis of the park and the main dominant feature of its landscape is the vast Valley of the Nida River, with slopes in the form of terraces and a strongly meandering river. The terrain is marshy in places, because the Nida and its tributaries are accompanied by numerous bends, oxbow lakes, backwaters and wetlands with rushes, reeds and mires. The whole area is geologically diverse, with a large role played by the layers of plaster and related karst formations. The exceptionally favourable habitat conditions result in a large number of xerothermic communities. They developed primarily on humus-rich soils, especially those located on the southern slopes of the gentle hills. In addition, there are numerous bogs, plant communities and forests (mainly riparian and oak-hornbeam forests).
The following amphibian species were found: great crested newt Triturus cristatus Laur., smooth newt Lissotriton vulgaris L., European fire-bellied toad Bombina bombina L., common spadefoot toad Pelobates fuscus Laur., European tree frog Hyla arborea L., common toad Bufo bufo L., natterjack toad Epidalea calamita Laur., European green toad Bufotes viridis Laur., edible frog Pelophylax esculentus L., pool frog Pelophylax lessonae Cam., marsh frog Pelophylax ridibundus Pall., moor frog Rana arvalis Nilss. and common frog Rana temporaria L. Reptiles were represented by sand lizard Lacerta agilis L., viviparous lizard Zootoca vivipara Jacquin, slow worm Anguis fragilis L., grass snake Natrix natrix L., smooth snake Coronella austriaca Laur. and common European adder Vipera berus L. The study also covered the phenology and reproductive biology of the edible frog and the common frog.
The area of the Park and its buffer zone include a number of busy roads (including national roads 78 and 79, provincial routes 766, 767, 771, 776 and 973), which result in a significant problem for migrating amphibians, which are killed by car traffic. Other threats include grass fires in the spring (started deliberately by the local population), as well as changes to the water, resulting in lowering the water level and silting, overgrowing and drying tanks. In addition, the Nida and its tributaries are polluted with sewage, and illegal landfills can be found within the Park.

Herpetofauna of the nature reserve and nearby pond in Zachełmie


Research work was carried out in 2013 - 2014 within Zachełmie nature reserve (7.95 ha) and was located in the vicinity of a pond (area of 1.36 ha) and its immediate surroundings. The total area of the research was 60.23 hectares. The aim of the study was to determine the occurrence and distribution of amphibians and reptiles, as well as the reproductive biology and phenology of selected species.
Zachełmie nature reserve was created in 2004 in order to protect a paleontological site containing the world's oldest fossilized tracks of tetrapods (Tetrapoda). The area includes a defunct quarry which exploited Devonian dolomite deposits; Permian and Triassic sandstones were also uncovered at the site. The excavation site has an area of 4.6 hectares, a depth of 22 m and constitutes the central and southern part of the reserve. The central part of the reserve has a shallow (less than 1 m) quarry lake with a variable surface area. The entire reserve (mainly on the outskirts of the quarry) shows secondary succession involving trees and shrubs which have created forest and scrub communities.
The reservoir in Zachełmie is located 950 m northeast of the reserve. This small eutrophic water body is artificially stocked with fish. On three sides (north, east and south), the water body is adjacent to the forests of Suchedniowsko-Oblęgorski Protected Landscape Area. The dominant habitat types in the area include mixed forest and the fresh mixed coniferous forest.
The following amphibians were found across the study area: smooth newt Lissotriton vulgaris L., alpine newt Triturus alpestris Laur., great crested newt Triturus cristatus Laur., common spadefoot toad Pelobates fuscus Laur., common toad Bufo bufo L., European green toad Bufotes viridis Laur., edible frog Pelophylax esculentus L., pool frog Pelophylax lessonae Cam., marsh frog Pelophylax ridibundus Pall., moor frog Rana arvalis Nilss. and common frog Rana temporaria L. Reptiles were represented by sand lizard Lacerta agilis L., viviparous lizard Zootoca vivipara Jacquin, slow worm Anguis fragilis L., grass snake Natrix natrix L. and common European adder Vipera berus L. Phenology studies concerned two common amphibians: the common toad and the common frog.
The greatest identified threat to the amphibians and reptiles were cars, motorcycles and quads passing along the roads in Zachełmie village, where numerous specimens of the species of amphibians (mainly common toad and common frog) and much fewer specimens of the two reptilian species (sand lizard and grass snake) were killed. In addition, the whole area is extensively penetrated by tourists, fishermen and the local population, resulting in, among others, significant littering, campfires and grass fires in the spring.

Transformation of forests in the area
of active nature conservation in Tatry National Park
under the influence of human activities and natural processes


The paper describes the current state of forests in the area of active nature conservation of Tatry National Park, and changes that have been taking place in these forests over the last 4 decades. In terms of tree composition, forest stands significantly differ from the theoretical tree species composition characteristic for the habitat present. The distinctness is a result of human activities: industry, excessive exploitation of the forests and lack of rational forest management in the past, as well as current reconstruction of forest stands. The Tatra forests changed by humans in the area of active conservation, are simultaneously subject to natural processes that largely contribute to their degradation. Existing spruce monocultures break down under the influence of strong winds and gradation of the bark beetle. The phenomenon is periodically growing in intensity, as it has happened many times in history, and lately in the period of 25 - 27 December 2013. The paper discusses documented cases of such phenomena in the Tatry Mountains and confronts them with the state of forest stands at the time of the phenomenon occurring.
Based on the inventories of the forest stands, as conducted between 1974 and 2014, the size and dynamics of changes has been compared in the area of active nature conservation as a result of the carried out reconstruction of forest stands. This has been documented both at the level of the mature stand and the undergrowth. The course and the reasons of the phenomenon were discussed based on broad literature on the topic.



New localities of endangered species Aculeata (Hymenoptera)
in "Jelonka" reserve in north-eastern Poland


The paper presents new localities of Parnopes grandior (Pallas, 1771), Batozonellus lacerticida (Pallas, 1771), Scolia hirta Schrank, 1781, Dasypoda argentata Panzer, 1809 in Poland located in "Jelonka" reserve (UTM FD63). These species are included in the Polish Red Data Book of Animals - Invertebrates (category CR, VU). The conservation issues of these species are also discussed in the paper.

Winter and spring diet of long-eared owl in lower Pilica valley


We analysed winter and early spring diet of long-eared owl Asio otus in Pilica river valley (Natura 2000 site, central Poland) in 2015. Among 1683 collected individuals from pellets, 11 species of mammals were detected. Most common were: root vole Microtus oeconomus (55.3%), common vole M. arvalis (30.7%) and bank vole Myodes glareolus (5.5%). Arvicolinae consisted 92.7% of prey and Muridae 6.2%. Birds and amphibians were preyed on very rarely (0.35%) and shrews incidentally (0.15%).

First record of the racoon in Rogów Forest District


Raccoon is an alien invasive species in Europe. Its expansion in Poland started several years ago. In Rogów Forest District this species was first recorded on 17.06. in a forest compartment number 75b. One individual was seen in the closed holiday resort located at the man-made reservoir at the Mroga River. Its origin is not clear: it might have appeared naturally as a result of expansion from the west or it may have been kept as a pet and released. So far, the closest documented record of this species comes from the vicinity of Piotrków Trybunalski (45 km south from the study area). It can be assumed that the expansion of raccoon is inevitable and this species will be present in the area of Rogów permanently in the near future.

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