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Projekt PL BY
Dzika Odyseja
Izba Administracji Skarbowej w Białymstoku
Strona główna arrow Parki Narodowe i Rezerwaty Przyrody
PNRP 27(4) – 2008 r.

Nature reserves as a refuge of Grifola frondosa (DICKS.: FR.) GRAY in central Poland


This work presents data on the occurrence of Grifola frondosa (DICKS.: FR.) GRAY in central Poland. In 2005 – 2007 five localities of this species were found. The species is endangered and strictly protected by law. It is placed on the Red List of fungi in the “endangered” (V) category.
Four localities are new in Poland. In the fifth locality, the “Las Bielański” reserve, this fungus has been documented for the first time in more than one hundred years, the same being true for the central part of the country. All the five localities are in nature reserves (“Uroczysko Bażantarnia”, “Las Bielański”, “Las Natoliński”, “Obory”, “Dębina”), two of which are located within the borders of Warsaw (“Las Bielański” and “Las Natoliński”). The reserves represent the association of subcontinental deciduous forest with well preserved remnants of pristine old-growth oak forests. Overall, 11 fruitbodies were found, having diameters between 15 and 40 cm. The Grifola frondosa fruitbodies occurred exclusively on Quercus robur. On four out of 8 trees infected by Grifola frondosa (5 alive and 3 dead, including one standing broken tree and one uprooted tree) fruitbodies of other fungi were found (one species per one tree). These were Fistulina hepatica, Laetiporus sulphureus, Daedalea quercina and Inonotus dryophilus, each of the species being able to decompose oak wood.
In central Poland, protection of the localities of Grifola frondosa in nature reserves is of importance for preservation of this rare fungus. Many years of properly implemented protection in reserves have ensured the presence of host trees in right ages, as well as dead and decaying wood. This wood is a suitable substrate for the growth of many threatened fungi, not only for Grifola frondosa.

A contribution to the lichen biota alder forests in Biebrza National Park


Alder forests are common on Polish lowlands. The lichen biota of this forest communities belong to rich and taxonomically diversified ones in north-eastern Poland (BYSTREK, KOLANKO 1997, 2000; CIEŚLIŃSKI 1995, 2003 a; CIEŚLIŃSKI, KOLANKO 2000; CIEŚLIŃSKI, TOBOLEWSKI 1988, 1989; CIEŚLIŃSKI, ZIELIŃSKA 1994; FAŁTYNOWICZ 1994; KOLANKO 2005, 2006). Within the forest communities alder forest predominate (30%). As a result of field studies carried out in 2002 – 2007 on 22 stands, 82 species of lichens from 44 genera were found and identified. The richest in species are: Cladonia and Lecanora (8), Pertusaria (4), Arthonia, Calicium, Melanelixia, Physcia, Ramalina and Usnea (3). Crustose lichens are predominant. Other morphological forms are represented by smaller numbers of species. In alder forests only two ecological groups occur: epiphytic and epixylic lichens. Lichens grow on the bark of all tree and shrub species. The lichen biota of the alder is the richest (73 species) and includes rare species such as: Arthonia spadicea, A. vinosa, Bacidia rosella, B. rubella, Bacidina assulata, Dimerella lutea, D. pineti, Menegazzia terebrata, Cetrelia cetrarioides, Flavoparmelia caperata and Pertusaria mutlipuncta. Smaller numbers of lichen species were encountered on the other phorophytes. Valuable components of the lichen biota belong mostly to the relics of primeval and natural forests: Arthonia vinosa, Calicium glaucellum, C. viride, Cetrelia cetrarioides, Loxospora elatina, Menegazzia terebrata, Opegrapha viridis, Pertusaria flavida and P. mutlipuncta (CIEŚLIŃSKI 2003 a). Among 82 lichen species 35 have been put on the Red List of extinct and vulnerable lichens of Poland (CIEŚLIŃSKI et al. 2003), including 2 species in the CR category, 10 – EN, 14 – VU, 9 – NT, as well as 12 species on the Red List of lichens vulnerable in north-east Poland (CIEŚLIŃSKI 2003 b), including 2 species in the CR category, 4 – EN, 4 – VU and 2 – DD.

The profile of contemporary localities of moss Buxbaumia viridis
in Elbląg Upland (northern Poland)


A field study was conducted to investigate the occurrence of the rare, red-listed moss Buxbaumia viridis in a forest complex (area ca 2350 ha) close to the village of Kadyny, situated in Elbląg Upland, near Elbląg in northern Poland (54°16’N, 19°31’E). Forests were surveyed in 2005 and 2006; all findings of B. viridis were noted. Snags and logs of spruce (Picea abies), beech (Fagus sylvatica) and pine (Pinus sylvestris) were searched for sporophytes. The wood taxon, stage of decomposition, number of sporophytes and associated species were noted if Buxbaumia was found. Two new localities were recorded. In the first one B. viridis grew on humus on river-stone (several sporophytes), in the second one on a spruce log (6 sporophytes) and on a beech log (1 sporophyte). The occurrence of B. viridis in Elbląg Upland was confirmed after almost 100 years.
The forest near Kadyny is a good refuge for that rare species because of the specific microclimate engendered by small brooks, deep ravines and the extensive management of old beech forests growing there.

Leeches (Hirudinida) of Słowiński National Park


The aim of this study, carried out in Słowiński National Park, was to get to know the composition of leech species from selected hydrological objects. Studies were carried out in years 2002 and 2005, in June and July. Leeches were collected from two lakes: Dołgie Małe and Dołgie Wielkie, the Pustynka river and the Łebsko-Gardno Canal. Leeches were collected from material drawn from the bottoms of reserviors and from objects dipped in water. 18 taxons of leeches and 3 forms of Erpobdella octoculata were found. In lake Dołgie Małe 13 species and 3 forms were found, in lake Dołgie Wielkie – 7 species, in the Pustynka river – 2 species and in the Łebsko-Gardno Canal – 5 species and 2 forms. It is worth to note that rare species present placed on Red List were collected: Hirudo medicinalis (protected species), Dina stschegolewi, Dina lineata, Piscicola pojmanskae and Glossiphonia verrucata.

Rare and relict saproxylic beetles (Coleoptera)
of old oaks of the Rogalin Landscape Park


In 2004, 2005 and 2007 stuides on Coleoptera living on old oaks – Quercus robur L, especially on exposed heartwood developing as a result of preying of the great capricorn beetle – Cerambyx cerdo L., were conducted in Rogalin Landscape Park. Insects were observed and collected at night with the use of artificial light, during the day and at night by checking exposed heartwood, and by using “Netocia’’ window traps. As a result of the observations 71 species of Coleoptera forming groups on old oaks were found. They included protected species, such as Osmoderma eremita, Protaetia aeruginosa, Dorcus parallelipipedus, Eurythyrea quercus and Elater ferrugineus. Rare species and relict species, such as Limodromus longiventris, Lacon querceus, Ptinus schlerethi, P. sexpunctatus, Tenebrio opacus, Neatus picipes, Allecula rhenana, Hymenophorus doublieri, Gasterocercus depressirostris were observed too. A species of Coleoptera that is new to the fauna of Poland – Reitterelater dubius was discovered. The result of the researcg demonstrate the absolute value of old oaks and river valleys as places where rare species and relic species live.

Sedge rushes as biotopes of wetland birds
in the Warta Mouth National Park


The Warta Mouth National Park is dominated by water, swamp and mire biotopes, on which of clubrush-rush and meadow-tall herb plant communities developed. The most common ones are Phalaridetum arundinaceae, Phragmitetum australis and Glycerietum maximae, as well as tall sedge rushes: Caricetum gracilis and C. ripariae, wheras C. elatae and C. acutiformis are less frequent.
Amongst sedge rushes two plant associations dominate: Caricetum gracilis, which is represented in the whole area of the park, though more frequently in its southern part and C. ripariae being particularly common in the northern part, whereas the presence of associations such as Cicuto – Caricetum pseudocyperi, Caricetum vulpinae and Scirpetum sylvatici is limited to small areas. Two main associations, forming a mosaic with other rush and meadow plant communities, are favorable habitats for waterbirds, which nest there during the breeding season. The studies carried out in the designated study plots (ca. 320 ha in total), showed that 35 bird species nested there, representing 8 orders (Passeriformes, Cuculiformes, Anseriformes, Gruiformes, Charadriiformes, Galliformes, Ciconiiformes, Falconiformes).
Two study plots in the northern part constitute a spatial complex of clubrush-reed grasssedge communities, dominated by the association Caricetum ripariae. 25 bird species were found in study plot 1 (117 ha) and 17 species in study plot 2 (111 ha). In both study plots tree species were predominant: Acrocephalus schoenobaenus (27.1% and 22.1% of the bird community), Locustella luscinioides (16.5% and 14.0%) and Emberiza schoeniclus (13.5% and 12.8%). In the southern part one study plot was designated in a rush-meadow complex, in which the most frequent was the Caricetum gracilis association with a contribution of Carex riparia. There were 21 nesting species and the most numerous ones were: Acrocephalus schoenobaenus (17.3%), Emberiza schoeniclus (11.1%), Gallinago gallinago and Vanellus vanellus (each 9.9%). It is interesting that 1 pair of Acrocephalus paludicola, threatened on the global scale, was observed. The study plot 1 turned out to be the most abundant in nesting species, as 25 bird species were found there. The study plot 2 was preferred by Rallus aquaticus (11 calling males) as well as Carpodacus erythrinus (5 pairs).
The study plot 3 was characterized by the highest density of nesting birds, amounting to 14 pairs per 10 hectares, and the occurrence of waders. This study plot was the only one where Saxicola rubetra occurred, whereas the density of Motacilla flava within sedge rushes was ten times greater in study plot 2.
For most bird species the ratio of grasses to sedges was important. A high contribution of sedges (more than 60%) was the most important for Acrocephalus paludicola, whereas for other passerines, this contribution could be lower, and Gallinago gallinago preferred sites with dominated by Phalaris arundinacea. The species composition of nesting avifauna was significantly determined by the depth and time of spring flooding. The sedge rushes were used by birds as the nesting biotopes, however beyond the breeding season the areas being flooded served as moulting resting and Reedling places. The quantitative and qualitative studies on avifauna in selected sedge beds did not indicate preferences for specific sedge vegetation. From other authors’ research it can be concluded that the most important traits of a habitat serving as a nesting biotope and feeding site are: the height of vegetation, the ratios between various types of grass and sedge communities and water conditions in nesting period.

Breeding birds of the Special Protection Area Natura 2000 “Grądy Odrzańskie” in Wrocław


In 2004 studies on breeding birds were carried out in the Special Protection Area Natura 2000: “Grądy Odrzańskie” (PLB 0200002) in Wrocław. The simplified version of the mapping method has been employed to assess densities of most bird species. A total of 86 breeding bird species were recorded. During the years 1950 – 2006 30 other species were also recorded as breeding in this area. The most common species were represented by Sturnus vulgaris, Parus major, P. caeruleus, Sylvia atricapilla, Passer montanus, P. domesticus, Fringilla coelebs, Emberiza citrinella and Sylvia communis. The remaining species nested in densities below 5 pairs per 100 ha and each of them comprised no more than 2% of all breeding birds. In total, 24 species nested in denities below 0.5 pairs per 100 ha. Relatively high densities were recorded for species such as Emberiza citrinella, E. schoeniculus, Acrocephalus palustris, A. schoenobaenus, Sylvia communis, Saxicola torquata, Locustella naevia, L. fluviatilis and L. luscinioides. Among three species classified for the SPA Natura 2000 “Grądy Odrzańskie” (PLB 0200002), i.e. Milvus milvus, Dendrocopos medius and Picus canus, the two latter ones were recorded in the studied area. From among other species listed in the Annex 1 of the Council Directive 79/409/EEC, the following species were recorded as breeding in the studied area: Ciconia ciconia, Circus aeruginosus, Alcedo atthis, Dryocopus martius, Lanius collurio, Emberiza hortulana, Ficedula albicollis and Sylvia nisoria. In 2005, quantitative studies were also conducted on the breeding bird community in an old stand of oak forest (24 ha) located in this SPA. A total of 40 species were recorded. The group of dominants was composed of Sturnus vulgaris, Sylvia atricapilla, Parus caeruleus, P. major, Fringilla coelebs, Phylloscopus collybita, Turdus merula and Passer montanus. Hole-nesting species, among other six woodpecker species, were exceptionally well-represented.


Fungi gathered for the XIV Fungi Exposition of the Białowieża Forest


The Białowieża Forest belongs to the best preserved lowland forest complexes in Europe. The natural quality of the Białowieża Forest, especially in terms of its mycological features, is extremely high. In the course of the Fungi Exhibition of the Białowieża Forest (organized on a yearly basis) the audience is provided with information on the role and importance of this underestimated group of living organisms. Emphasized is the unique character of the Białowieża Forest as a refuge for very many rare and interesting macrofungi of regional (wider than national) importance. During the event, the knowledge on fungi identification is disseminated, concerning both the fungi utilized by humans, and the others – dangerous because of the toxins they contain, as well as very rare fungi, crucial in the context of the primeval forest’s unique value. Nearly 250 species were gathered at this year’s exhibition. Presented specimens were divided into four thematic groups: edible mushrooms, poisonous fungi, not edible species, and the group of fungi living on wood. Among the individuals presented at the exhibition there were 46 species (that is nearly 20%) from the Red List of the macrofungi of Poland; 13 belong to the E category – endangered, 10 represent the V category – vulnerable, 21 are charaxcterized as the R group (rare) and 2 were listed to the I category (indeterminate). Out of the threatened fungi group, as many as 34 (over 70%) are species strictly connected with wood decay, 9 are mycorrhizal fungi and another 3 are saprobic fungi (litter-decomposing species or utilizing the soil solution). While preparing the exhibition, more than 20 new species for the Białowieża Forest were found and reported for the ever first time.
These include, but are not limited to, species subject to strict legal protection like, e.g. Geastrum fimbriatum, very rare taxa like Tricholoma focale or Russula anthracina v. insipida, and even species relatively frequent in Poland like, e.g. Amylostereum laevigatum or Lyophyllum decastes.
Three species have been proposed to be included in the Red List’s E category (endangered) (Antrodia sitchensis, Vararia borealis, Ceraceomyces borealis).

Additions to the checklist of the weevils
(Coleoptera: Curculionoidea: Apionidae, Curculionidae, Rhynchitidae)
of the Opawskie Mountains Landscape Park


The author presented new data about the weevils of the Opawskie Mountains Landscape Park. Twenty nine species are new to that territory, six of them are new to the East Sudetes. Most of these species are very common in Poland but the territory of Opawskie Mountains is still known insufficiently, hence there is a lack of information about them.

Unknown French historical data on the presence
of freshwater pearl mussel Maragaritifera margaritifera (LINNAEUS, 1758)
in the 18th century Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth


The historical data on the presence of the freshwater pearl mussel Maragaritifera margaritifera (LINNAEUS, 1758) in Poland are limited to the Sudety Mountains, Lower Silesia and one locality on the Bzura river. Jean-Etienne Guettard (1715 – 1786), one of the most eminent eighteenth century naturalists spent two years (1760 – 162) in Poland as a physician at the Embassy of France. Richarchives of this scientist are held at the Central Library of National Museum of Natural History in Paris. They contain many documents on his visit to and his work in Poland. New informationon the presence of freshwater pearl mussel Maragaritifera margaritifera (LINNAEUS, 1758) in Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth was found in these manuscripts. Guettard cites pearls offered to him by Franciszek Bieliński (1683 – 1766), Grand Marshal of the Crown, and found in the pondsof Rohatyn near Lwów. He also cites ponds near Komarno as a locality of the freshwater pearl mussel and he mentions the presence of the species on the territories of the current Latvia.
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