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PNRP 35(2) – 2016 r.


The lichens of "Mały Borek" nature reserve in Augustów Forest


Altogether 45 species lichens were recorded in the ‘‘Mały Borek" nature reserve. 3 of those are known only from historical records. There are Arthonia arthonioides, Bryoria subcana (CIEŚLIŃSKI 2003 a) and Lichenomphalia umbellifera (CZYŻEWSKA et al. 2005). 14 taxa are included in the red list of lichens in Poland: 2 as critically endangered (CR), 2 as endangered (EN), 6 as vulnerable (VU) and 4 as near threatened (NT). 3 of those were not recorded at present. 3 taxa are included in the red list of endangered lichen species in North-Eastern Poland: 1 as endangered (EN) and 2 as vulnerable (VU). 2 of those were not recorded at present. Three of all species are entirely and eight partially protected by law.


Dieback of the European ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.)
in Roztocze National Park


In 2014, the studies were performed in stands of Roztocze National Park. The aim of these studies was to assess the intensity of the fungal disease in ash trees and to estimate the amount of infectious material of the fungus Hymenoscyphus fraxineus which is regarded as a causal agent of the disease. The research was carried out in 10 randomly selected stands over 40 years old, growing at fresh upland broad- leaved forest site, at an altitude of 271 to 336 m above sea- level. Fifty centrally located, neighbouring trees of Fraxinus excelsior were examined for their health condition in each stand. In addition, in July and September 2014, the amount of infectious Hymenscyphus fraxineus material present on the previous year's ash rachises in the leaf litter was estimated. In each period 300 rachises were analysed. The ash showed symptoms of the disease in all the analysed stands. Of 500 trees, 11.8% were dead and 80.8% show symptoms of the disease. Only 7.4% of the trees did not show any macroscopic symptoms of dieback. Necroses were observed in 48.4% of the tree trunks. Tops died in 12,8% of the trees. The dieback of branches were observed in 80.8% of the ash trees. In most individuals, the dieback status was significantly advanced because it concerned above 25% of the status of branches in the crown. The intensity of the disease in F. excelsior showed significant differences between the stands. Among other things, it depended on the age of stands and the contribution of ash in the species composition. A large amount of infectious material of Hymenoscyphus fraxineus was found in the analysed stands. In July 2014, Hymenoscyphus fraxineus formed pseudosclerotia on 89.3% of rachises and apothecia were observed on 59.6%. In September 2014, the fungus formed pseudosclerotia on 94.0% of rachises and apothecia on 13/7%. In September 2014. the fungus formed pseudosclerotia on 94.0% of rachises and apothecia on 13.7% of rachises. In July 2014, apothecia of Hymenoscyphus fraxineus were observed insignificantly more often in the middle part of rachises, and in September 2014 - at their base. The amount of infectious material of Hymenoscyphus fraxineus representing a serious threat to the surviving ash trees, was assessed. On rachises with pseudosclerotia, the fungus Hymenoscyphus fraxineus can produce apothecia in the next few years.


Black cherry Prunus serotina (EHRH.) BORKH
in the Uroczysko Wrzosy nature reserve
with some options of reducting its expansion


This paper presents the results of the research conducted in 2014 in the Uroczysko Wrzosy nature reserve, situated in the Wołów community (South-West Poland). The protection objective is to preserve the natural currant alder swamps and the ash-alder riparian forest, with protected and rare plant species, monumental trees, and also to preserve the breeding grounds of the forest and water-marsh ornithofauna.
The aim of our study was to assess the distribution of invasive black cherry in the area of nature reserve and determine the factors conditioning this distribution. The data were collected when penetrating the area on foot along forest administration lines and transportation routes.
An account of the black cherry spread over the protected area is not large but the invader encroaches into different plant communities and its cove percentage quickly grows under favourable environmental conditions. Prunus serotina has been found in 8 types of plant communities: currant alder swamps Ribeso nigri-Alnetum, a degenerative form of alder forest Poa trivialis-Alnetum, ash-alder riparian forests Fraxino-Alnetum, oak-hornbeam forests Galio sylvatici-Carpinetum betuli, pine forests Leucobryo-Pinetum, secondary forest communities and meadows Arrhenatheretum elatioris.
Most of sites with P. serotina are located very close to transportation routes and Scots pine stands near a nature reserve border, which are the main propagule source of invader. In the area of the Uroczysko Wrzosy the Scots pine forests with black cherry shrub, as well as secondary forest communities, provide the natural species regeneration and they pose a potential threat to the uninvaded sites. At the same time P. serotina invades swamp forests in the nature reserve but is not able to reproduce in these plant communities as yet.
The effective elimination of P. serotina in the Uroczysko Wrzosy nature reserve is possible when we use a few methods together, for example, orderly pulling of seedlings and saplings in the protected area and cutting of flowering individuals (with annual elimination of vegetative shoots arising from the neck) in the area of nature reserve and its buffer zone.


New data on distribution
of Dryad Minois dryas (SCOPOLI, 1763) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)
in south-eastern Poland from 2012-2014


Dryad - Minois dryas (SCOPOLI, 1763) is a species of Euro-Siberian distribution type. In Poland, the species was once known for almost the entire area of the country, but by the end of the 80s of the last century died out in most well-known positions. After 2008, there were reports about the reappearance of the species in south-eastern Poland. In the surveys of adult butterfly conducted in 2012 - 2014 in this part of Poland M. dryas was found in 19 UTM square (10 × 10 km) at 37 new sites. The new sites are located in the Sanok-Turka Mountains, Przemyśl Foothills, Chyrów Plateau, Dynów Foothills, Jasło Foothills, Strzyżów Foothills, in the Jasło-Krosno Valley and Low Beskid and Western Bieszczady Mountains. Most of the new positions is located in protected areas (in National Parks, Landscape Parks, Nature Reserves, protected landscape areas, special areas of habitat protection Natura 2000) which potentially gives the ability to effectively protection. The biggest threat to new positions M. dryas is the intensification of farming, resulting, among others, of EU subsidies, natural succession of woody vegetation and afforestation. In light of all these positive developments, the authors hereby suggest to change the status of the species in the Polish Red List of Animals from the category CR - critically endangered taxon, to the category VU - taxon vulnerable and to maintain the legal protection of the species in Poland.


Lynx in the Tatras


Lynx is a natural component of the Tatras fauna that inhabits this region continuously ever since. It occurs mainly in the forest zone, and in the summer it can be found also in mountain pine floor and halls. In the Belianske Tatras and Western Tatras it reaches its highest elevation. In the High Tatras he was observed in the Wielicka Valley even at the height of 2227 m above sea level, which is the highest range in Poland, Slovakia and Central Europe.
In the past, the given number of lynx were definitely overstated in the area of the Tatra Mountains. Closer to the real state of the evaluation of lynx are last decade statistics. In total lynx population consists of 16 - 22 individuals in the area of the Polish and Slovak Tatra mountains.
Lynx in the Tatras and neighbouring mountain areas hunts mainly deer and to a lesser extent, other species of wild ungulates. This natural predator preys upon typical mountain species like the chamois, marmot and others.
Often exaggerated loss of lynx in farmed animals are actually insignificant and virtually do not exist as such in the Tatra Mountains, as well as in the neighborhood. Lynx predation on wild populations should be seen as a natural element of ecosystem functioning.
In the past lynx was obtained by a man primarily by hunting. Man used also iron traps and poison.


Opinions of cavers
on mountain caving in Tatra National Park –
– an analysis of questionnaire research


It present results of questionnaires directed in work for environment cave movement. It concerned questionnaire four questions safeties in cave 1, regarding rendering accessible cave for movement by 2 opinion of speleologist in TPN area, littering of interior of cave results 4, for caves 3 illegal entrance. Questionnaire has been carried electronic among all mountain clubs expensive, section proprietary cave. From among 171 scenes, it has fulfilled questionnaire 21 persons merely. In opinion questionnaired, safety of moving is not threatened after caves, as all rendered accessible caves own constant insurance points. But left equipment in the form of ropes, tapes, it does not effect their levels of safeties carbines. Left equipment promotes fastest moving after corridors. However, old and it is blasted littering of interior only equipment. They present direct threat for cave environment for persons organize lacking proper entitlement eventy. It results from research, that they are not satisfied questionnaired from number of rendered accessible cave. It causes, that speleologists enter for cave this render accessible illegally equal (Czarna, Zimna, Kasprowa Niżna etc.), as well as this unrender accessible (Bańdzioch Kominiarski, Szczelina Chochołowska, Wysoka za Siedmiu Progami, etc.). It belongs to retrieve caves in opinion of speleologists for movement: Bańdzioch Kominiarski, Mała w Mułowej, Wysoka za Siedmiu Progami. Miętusia i Kozia.




First record
of the praying mantis (Mantis religiosa (LINNAEUS, 1758))
in Kampinos National Park


In Poland the praying mantis is a strictly protected species and is classified under the category EN - endangered in the Polish Red Data Book. It prefers a warm climate and it is most likely that in warmer periods of the Quaternary it was more widely distributed in Poland. In Kampinos National Park this species was noted for the first time on the 20th of August 2016 near the village Kiścinne-Krogulec.

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