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PNRP 35(4) – 2016 r.


New data on distribution
of Dryad Minois dryas (SCOPOLI, 1763) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)
in south-eastern Poland. Part II


During the next phase of investigation of Dryad - Minois dryas (SCOPOLI, 1763) distribution in 2015 in south-eastern Poland the species was found at 55 new localities. The localities are placed in 20 (16 new) UTM square (10 × 10 km) and in 10 mesoregions - Orawa-Nowy Targ Valley, Pieniny Mts., Spisz-Gubaówka Foothills, Przemy郵 Foothills, Sanok-Turka Mts., Dynów Foothills, Bukowsko Foothills, Jas這-KrosnoValley, Low Beskid Mts. and Western Bieszczady Mts. In 3 of
them - Orawa-Nowy Targ Valley, Pieniny Mts. and Spisz-Gubaówka Foothills - Dryad was found for the first time. Additionally 11 known earlier sites located in 5 mesoregions have been monitored, in 2 of them authors didn't manage to confirm the presence of Dryad. Current and historical distribution of M. dryas in Poland generalized in UTM grid 10 × 10 km was summarized. Horizontal and vertical distribution of more than a hundred localities was thoroughly analyzed. Moreover, the size of the local population of M. dryas and its habitat preferences were analyzed. At the moment, the most common position of the species in Poland is site located on one of the Carpathian foothills, at an altitude of 350 - 400 m above sea level, located in the habitat of meadows, adjacent to forests and in conjunction with other types of habitats, mostly meadows and wasteland, on which exists a small or average population of that species, numbering from 2 to 50 individuals. In connection with the discovery of such a large number of new sites of M. dryas in the south-eastern part of the country the authors support the suggestion of changing the status of the species in the Polish Red Book of Animals from category CR - taxon critically endangered, to the category VU - vulnerable taxon and to maintain legal protection of the species in Poland, pending verification of the actual degree of danger in our country.


Numbers and population dynamics
of birds inhabiting open areas in Kampinos National Park


This paper presents the results of a six year (2009 - 2014) monitoring programme of birds inhabiting open areas in Kampinos National Park. Population dynamics analyses pointed to highly varying numbers of individual species. Not all trends were coincident with data for the whole country, but the numbers of some species were correlated with changes noted in Poland and Europe. One of the most important factors influencing the distribution of birds inhabiting open ecosystems, probably was the water level and climatic conditions, such as drought. For some species the water level was more important than the mowing of meadows in autumn and maintaining low vegetation. On the other hand the sustaining of semi-natural ecosystems through the mowing of meadows positively impacted the group of birds which preferred low grass. In the years with high precipitation and a high level of ground waters an increase of number of wading birds was noted, while in drier years the numbers of species inhabiting fields and fallow land grew. The monitoring also proved the increase of number of species considered to only occasionally inhabit the park, such as mute swan, greylag goose, european stonechat. The decrease of number of the following species was observed: whinchat, western yellow wagtail, thrush nightingale. The following species were observed only once during the whole monitoring programme: grey-headed woodpecker, tawny pipit, ortolan bunting.


Breeding Non-Passeriformes water bird species
of Stawy Raszy雟kie Nature Reserve
in 2013 - 2014


In 2013 - 2014 a survey of the current composition of breeding Non-Passeriformes waterfowl of the complex of fish ponds Stawy Raszy雟kie next to Warsaw was conducted. It's a nature reserve, which contains 12 fish ponds, emerged vegetation, nearest meadows, bushes and riparian forests.
In both breeding seasons, the whole area of the reserve was controlled - not only surface of the ponds, but also the surroundings. The number of each species was determined on the basis of methods by BOROWIEC et al. (1981), which were different depending on the species (for example number of males and females, nests or pairs). The number of Rallidae and Little Grebe was determined by vocal stimulation (DOMBROWSKI et al. 1993), when voices of Little Grebe, Little
Crake, Spotted Crake, Water Rail, Corn Crake and Little Bittern were being replayed. The last part of the research was to compare the bird community composition in 2013 - 2014 with that one in 1977 - 1986 (BUKACI垶KI, BUKACI垶KA 1991) and to enlist reasons for the changes in the population sizes observed for each species.
During the research a total of 18 breeding waterfowl species were found, this is 11 species missing from the survey done in 1977 - 1986 period while 4 new species were recorded (Greylag Goose, Cormorant, Common Goldeneye and Little Crake). The number of 4 species has decreased while that of 9 increased.
Grey Heron and Mallard were dominants in the number of individuals. Common Pochard, Eurasian Coot, Little Grebe, Tufted Duck and Cormorant were also the most numerous, whereas Greylag Goose, Little Crake and Marsh Harrier were the least.
Reasons for the change in the bird species population sizes were analyzed based on collected data and enlisted. These are:
- nationwide changes of birds' number
- synanthropization
- changes in reserve's habitat
- interactions between bird species
- pressure of predators
The most probable reason is nationwide changes of birds' numbers. Waterfowl community of Stawy Raszy雟kie reflects national tendencies in changes in the species' number. 


A passive one-hundred years conservation
of post-clear-cut tree stands in the Bia這wie瘸 National Park
led to restore of a breeding avifauna


In the early XX century some clear-cuts (a few - a dozen hectares) were done in several places of the current Bia這wie瘸 National Park (BNP) leaving a few old specimens ot oak and lime. Currently, these fragments are covered with ca 100-year-old deciduous stands, which was regenetated without human intervention, the same like neighboring, never cut tree stands of primeval origin. Since the composition and structure of bird communities are often used to assess the degree of naturalness of the forest habitats, we aimed to compare some bird' indices in primeval stands and in post-clear-cut stands of the BNP. The most common forest stand in BNP lime-hornbeam-oak Tilio-Carpinetum, is covered with lime Tilia cordata, hornbeam Carpinus betulus, oak Quercus robur, spruce Picea abies, maple Acer platanoides, ash Fraxinus excelsior, elm Ulmus spp. and occasionally aspen Populus tremula and birches Betula spp. The post-clear-cut stands is dominated by old aspen and birch but younger generations of the hornbeam and the lime dominate in numbers.
The study was conducted during the breeding season (April - May) 2011. We studied all birds using the point count method (HUTTO et al. 1986) on 22 points in the primeval stands and in 22 points in post-clear-cut stands. The following indices were calculated: S - species richness, A - number of birds and H'- species diversity. We also calculated the average number of species in different nesting and foraging guilds. The number of species and species composition of birds in both stands were nearly identical (Table 1), as well as all three indices (S, A and H') (Table 2). The size of particular nesting and foraging guilds were also very similar in both studied tree stands (Table 3 and 4). So, we have shown that long-term passive conservation of post-clear-cut stands in the BNP allowed to recreate a breeding birds community typical for the primeval lime-hornbeam-oak tree stands. This proves the high efficiency of passive conservation of the forest. Such conservation method is very economical as it does not require any treatment (eg. the removal and planting of trees, transports), which is important at a low investment in our state protected areas.


Vertebrates in the diet
of tawny owl Strix aluco in Lipce Forest (Rogów Forest District)


The research was carried out in the years 2013 - 2016 in the area of a forest complex Lipce, which is a part of a Rogów Forest District (central Poland). The forest complex comprised over 1000 ha and was surrounded by arable lands and dispersed building (Fig. 1). The main tree species in the forest was Scotch pine Pinus sylvestris. Areas covered with stands of old common beech Fagus sylvatica trees were protected as nature reserves. The aim of the study was an inventory of small vertebrates. A standard procedure of analyses of tawny owl Strix aluco pellets was used. Pellets were collected in six sites, during all the seasons. Altogether, in the collected material remains of 1425 vertebrates (representing at least 38 species) were found. Mammals dominated and accounted for 87% prey items, classified as 14 species. Most often, the owls caught yellow-necked mice Apodemus flavicollis and bank voles Myodes glareolus, accounting together for 44.7% of prey items. The share of an eurytopic species striped-field mouse Apodemus agrarius was over 6%. Typically synanthropic species, such as house mouse Mus musculus and brown rat Rattus norvegicus were recorded rarely (altogether 1.6% of prey items). The share of soricomorphs was 7.4%, common shrew Sorex araneus and mole Talpa europaea were caught most often (Tab. 1). Among remains of birds, 93 individuals belonging to 14 species were recorded. The most numerous were chaffinch Fringilla coelebs, starling Sturnus vulgaris and hawfinch Coccothraustes coccothraustes (Tab. 2). It can be said that the studied forest complex, despite long-term forest management and high isolation, retained relatively natural assemblage of small mammals. It can be also assumed that these results reflect species composition of small mammal fauna of the two nature reserves located within the forest complex.

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