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Strona główna arrow Parki Narodowe i Rezerwaty Przyrody

PNRP 36(1) – 2017 r.


Macromycetes of ‘‘Bory Tucholskie" National Park


The "Bory Tucholskie" National Park (PNBT) is located in the area of the Chojnice district, in the Pomeranian Voivodship, within Chojnice and Brusy communities. It covers the area of 4613.04 ha. In 2014 in PNBT was carried out a research project aimed to investigate the species diversity of macroscopic fungi of the area. The research covered a variety of habitats - pine forests accompanying water ecosystems, plant communities growing on the sand dunes, moors, bogs, reedbeds and meadows. Observations were conducted each month on 35 permanent plots located in the main plant communities of Park (excluding Cladonio-Pinetum covered by a separate project).
The study was also carried out using a route. A total of 258 taxa of macroscopic fungi was recorded, including 47 taxa new to the "Bory Tucholskie" National Park. The highest number of species were recorded on the plot within the patch Vaccinio uligonosi-Betuletum pubescentis (number 24) (48 species), and the lowest on the plot located in community of Calthion palustris (number 4) - one species. Among the distinguished environmental groups the largest was terrestrial fungi (142 species), while the least numerous - fungi, which use as a substrate body of insects (represented by one species - Cordyceps militaris). Saprotrophic fungi constituted the largest trophic group of fungi, represented by 149 species, while the smallest was group of parasites only eight species. There were found four species protected by law (Rozporządzenie... 2014) and 47 rare and threatened species in categories E, V, R, I (Wojewoda, Ławrynowicz 2006).


State of research on lichens in landscape parks in podlaskie voivodeship


The paper presents the state of research on lichens in four Landscape Parks located in the podlaskie voivodeship. In the region of Podlasie next to four National Parks (Białowieża National Park, Biebrza National Park, Narew National Park, Wigry National Park) there are four Landscape Parks: Podlasie Bug Gorge Landscape Park, Łomża Landscape Park of the Narew Valley, Suwalski Landscape Park, Knyszyn Forest Lanscape Park them. Professor Witold Sławiński. In these parks were found 369 species of lichens, which made about 24% Polish lichen biota and 53% of the lichen biota of North-Eastern Poland. The greatest diversity was recorded in the Knyszyńska Forest, where so far were found 365 species of lichens. As a result of research conducted in Suwalski Landscape Park there were recorded 231 species of lichens. In the Łomżyński Landscape Park of the Narew Valley were found 75 species. Research of lichenological in the Podlasie Bug Gorge Landscape Park, ,Łomża Landscape Park of the Narew Valley, Suwalski Landscape Park, Knyszyn Forest Lanscape Park them. Professor Witold Sławiński have showed the presence of 94 species. Within the parks it has been reported a large group of species belonging to the group of lichens special care. Of all the species, 47 species are covered by legal protection, including 26 strictly protected, 21 partially protected. Three species were covered by zone protection. In addition, 147 species are on the Red list of the lichens in Poland (Cieśliński et al. 2006), one was considered as regionally extinct (category RE), 14 - as critically endangered (CR), 46 - as endangered (EN), 46 - as vulnerable (VU), 7 - as least concern (LC), 26 - as near threatened (NT), and seven is among lichens on data deficient (DD). Among the 369 species of lichens recorded in landscape parks of the study area 95 is located on the Red List of lichens endangered in north-eastern Poland (Cieśliński 2003b), including 1 in the category of regionally extinct (RE), 20 - as CR, 21 - in category EN, 27 - in the category VU, 6 - in category NT, 5 - in category LC and 15 - in category DD.


Dragonflies (Odonata) of the Poleski National Park
and its buffer zone: data from the years 2004 - 2016


The paper sums up the data collected in Poleski National Park during different study projects in the years 2004 - 2016. Forty five sites were examined: 34 in the park and 11 in its buffer zone. Fifty five dragonfly species were recorded: 53 in the park and 39 in its buffer zone. There are 15 special care species. High or extremely high densities of territorial males of Leucorrhinia pectoralis were recorded in some sites (38, 50, 61, and 105 ♂♂ 100 m-1). The occurrence of particular species, habitat spectrum of ecological elements and valuable odonate assemblages, which are especially formed in lakes, fish ponds and fens and Sphagnum bogs, have been discussed.
Considering earlier studies, 59 species of dragonflies have been recorded so far in the study area, which is 80% of the national fauna. This confirms the role of the Poleski National Park and its buffer zone in the protection of species richness of dragonflies and maintaining populations of many stenotopic species. In this area, a very large role is played by the traditional methods of land use and secondary, i.e. anthropogenic habitats. The most significant are fish ponds and fen/peat bog excavations. However, according to the authors, the approach of the park services to these water bodies is too passive. Especially peat excavations on Sphagnum bogs require active conseration, i.e. interference in the succession and deforestation of their marginal zones. Digging new excavations should also be considered, especially on peatlands free of natural water bodies.
In comparison to earlier data the following species have not been found: Ischnura pumilio, Coenagrion armatum, Gomphus vulgatissimus and Ophiogomphus cecilia. Most of them occur ephemerally in the study area due to lack of suitable habitats, but Coenagrion armatum had been known from the five sites and at least at two of them the populations were large and stable. Both sites were investigated after 2004 but the species was absent. This may result - in the first case - from the changes in vegetation, and, in the second case - from the drying out of the habitats. However, it is quite difficult to detect the species and hence it is very likely still occurs in the study area. We need a special research focused on the problem of its occurrence.
The species new for the study area are as follows: Crocothemis erythraea, Sympetrum meridionale and S. pedemontanum. This shows that the Poleski National Park is being covered by the ranges of growing number of thermophilous species recently. In the following years, we can expect the increase in the number of such species. However, Sympetrum pedemontanum can create small, probably ephemeral populations in some regulated rivers and canals in the study area.


The Violet Copper Lycaena helle (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae)
in the Polish part of the Białowieża Forest


The Violet Copper Lycaena helle is a butterfly species threatened both in Europe and Poland and listed in Appendices of the Habitats Directive. Its caterpillars are monophagous and in Central Europe feed exclusively on Bistorta officinalis (=Polygonum bistorta). Lycaena helle is still relatively widespread in Eastern Poland but in the Białowieża Forest it had been recorded more than half a century ago from the only site in the Lena valley where it became extinct.
In 2016 L. helle was rediscovered on eight sites in the Natura 2000 area Puszcza Białowieska PLC200004. Seven of them were localized in the Narewka valley and the only one in the Łutownia valley. Four sites were included in the Białowieża National Park (BNP) where the butterfly had been never recorded before. It should also be noted that there is no data on the occurrence of the species in the Belarussian part of the Białowieża Forest.
The origin of newly discovered sites is unclear but it seems unlikely that all of them were colonized by the butterfly recently. However it is not excluded that local habitat conditions improved in last years as the side effect of mowing meadows in the Narewka valley related to realization of various projects aimed to preserve different taxa. On the other hand two sites seemed to be without any agriculture use fora long time.
Lycaena helle as listed in Appendix II of HD should be added to targets of conservation for the Natura 2000 area as well as become the object of special conservation concern in BNP. Maintaining or introduction of low intensity management and monitoring of the local populations of L. helle as well as further inventory work are recommended, also in the Belarusian part the Białowieża Forest.

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