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Fungi Print

Work with book „Bia這wie瘸 National Park. Know it – Understand it – Protect it”
Publisher: Bia這wieski Park Narodowy, 2009

 The macrofungi





Grifola fondosa
In accordance with the latest view on organizm systematics Fungi are an individual group excluded from animal and plant groups, having a prestige of a kingdom. 

Geastrum (commonly
known as „earthstars”)
The number of fungi species in Bia這wie瘸 Forest is estimated in the amount of 3-4 thousand. Out of all the aforementioned species only a small percentage covers actual mushroom, usually associated with the name. Mushrooms are very diversed group, covering unicellular organisms (e.g. yeast), mold, mushrooms and other fungi having soft sporocarp and perennial, hard, tree sporocarps – polypores. 

Slime mold is the separate group of fungi widespread in Bia這wie瘸 Forest.

Lichens  - organisms created from the connection of algae and fungus in one symbiotic form of life – belong to the fungus kingdom, in accordance with the current systematic of plants. In the lichen association, algae are responsible for the process of photosynthesis, and thus for the provision of carbohydrates, whereas the fungus absorb mineral salts from the ground and constitute a "skeleton" of the lichen combination. 

An incredible variety of lichen (at present 400 species) can be found in Bia這wie瘸 Primaeval Forest. Almost all ecological types of lichens are represented here : from the least numerous rock lichens, through the species connected with deadwood and those growing in the soil, to the epifitic species (growing on trees). Unfortunately, due to the contamination of atmosphere the least sensitive species of lichens already vanished or are subjected to the process of vanishing. With reference to the historical data, in last few years - 58 species of lichens, previously identified in Bia這wie瘸 Forest, were not found. Shrub lichens, at present rarely seen, belong to the group of the leaches being the most sensitive to the contamination of atmosphere.

Polypores growing on a tree
Popular foliose lichens growing on tree trunks are a bit less sensitive than the aforementioned lichen type. Crustose and leprose lichens are the least sensitive and most widespread.

The majority of mushrooms produce soft, edible spores, due to which they are well known. Many people consider mushroom to be the typical representative of fungus kingdom. Contrary to that viewpoint, they are one of the smallest populations of fungi species, thus they are not a very representative group inside the fungus kingdom. Mushrooms do not constitute a uniform group of organisms taking into consideration e.g. the systematic reasons. 

Honey mushroom
Mushrooms are subdivided mainly into two groups : tube mushroom (edible boletus, slippery jack, leccinum, gall bladder) and split gill mushrooms (toadstool, parasol mushroom, honey mushroom). Apart from the aforementioned species there are many other fungi having soft spores, the shape of which does not always remind the mushroom (stag-horn fungus, beautiful clavarias etc.). 

Beefstaek fungus
Some of the aforementioned species used to be picked up and eaten: cauliflower fungus, teeth fungi or morel. At present, with a regard to their rare appearance, the aforementioned species are covered by the legal protection. 

Dog lichen
Fungi producing hard, strongly chitined spores, having a console shape are commonly called polyporus or pheasant’s back mushroom. The majority of the aforementioned fungi species are not recognized by the average human being, and considered to be useless. Our not very distant ancestors (in many regions of Poland even only few years ago) knew and used at least one polyporus – False Tinder fungus.

Pear-shaped puffball
The aforementioned polyporus was used by the people in the production of "tinder" – easy combustible material constituting, altogether with flintstone and a piece of metal, the set for fire ignition. Wild bee-keepers in Bia這wie瘸 Forest used other species of polyporus, white-rot fungus, for smoking bees during honey picking. If you take a closer look at "polyporus" you will discover that not all of them are hard. Some of the polyporus might be even edible, although, as a rule, only when they are young – e.g. sulphus shelf or beefsteak fungus. Anise mazegill anise-smelling is a kind of a curiosity – this is a polyporus connected with the spruce deadwood.

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