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Izba Administracji Skarbowej w Bia造mstoku
Strona g堯wna arrow Parki Narodowe i Rezerwaty Przyrody

PNRP 36(4) – 2017 r.


Inventory of myxomycetes (Myxogastria, Myxomycetes)
at designated research plots in the Bia這wie瘸 Old Growth Forest


Three-year studies on the occurrence of myxomycetes at 28 permanent research plots established by the employees of Bia這wie瘸 National Park (BPN) in 2013 and 2014 in the Bia這wie瘸 Old Growth Forest in the plant communities Fraxino-Alnetum, Ribeso-Alnetum, Tilio-Carpinetum typicum, Vaccinio myrtilli-Piceetum and Vaccinio uliginosi-Pinetum in BPN and in the plant communities Fraxino-Alnetum, Tilio-Carpinetum stachyetosum, Tilio-Carpinetum typicum and Vaccinio myrtilli-Piceetum in the Promotional Forest Complex (LKP) were undertaken (Table 1).
In 2013, the studies were conducted at fourteen plots in BPN and two plots in the LKP in Fraxino-Alnetum and Tilio-Carpinetum typicum. In 2014, studies were carried out at twelve plots in the LKP in Tilio-Carpinetum stachyetosum, Tilio-Carpinetum typicum and Vaccinio myrtilli-Piceetum. In 2015, all the research plots were investigated. Field studies were carried out in late summer and in autumn of each vegetative season (Table 2, 3).
Additionally to the field studies, myxomycetes were investigated using moist chamber cultures of bark fragments of living trees. The substrate was collected in 2014 from 12 plots in the LKP. Cultures were conducted from November 2014 until April 2015. Nine species were cultured, including Didymium squamulosum (ALB. et SCHWEIN.) FR. et PALMQUIST and Echinostelium minutum de BARY. The remaining species were also noted in the field, although at single localities (Table 4).
A total of 75 taxa were noted using two research methods. Species new to the myxomycete biota of the Bia這wie瘸 Old Growth Forest were recorded: Arcyria imperialis (G. LISTER) Q. WANG et Yu Li, Comatricha ellae HÄRK., Echinostelium minutum DE BARY, Licea biforis MORGAN, Perichaena vermicularis (SCHWEIN.) ROSTAF., Trichia lutescens (LISTER) LISTER (Table 5).
In 2015, there was a decrease in the number of myxomycetes due to the unfavourable course of the growing season, with a long absence of precipitation and high air temperature (Table 6, 7).


The state of conservation and prospects for the protection
of Molinia meadows (code 6410) in river valleys in the light of monitoring studies


Molinia meadows in river valleys in Poland occupy small areas and are sensitive to any changes occurring in the river ecosystem. Their specificity has prompted the authors to analyze the results of the first monitoring of habitat 6410 localities, carried out in 2010-2011, in terms of their conservation status and prospects for protection. Within the framework of national monitoring of natural habitats, the survey was conducted in 125 localities of habitat 6410 in 33 Natura 2000 areas, of which 49 stations in 13 areas were located in river valleys.
Four main parameters were used to evaluate the habitat: specific structure and function (with five indicators related to species composition of phytocoenoses: typical species, expansion of shrubs and trees, native expansive herb plants, dominant species, invasive alien species), the area of habitat (with three indicators: percentage of area covered by habitat in transect, space structure of habitat, area of habitat with different state of preservation), dead organic matter, indicating the use of hay meadows, prospects for preservation, and general evaluation.
Invasive alien species was the best-ranked indicator, which got FV (fair) on 46 stations, followed by typical species (here understood as characteristic and differential for Molinion alliance). The monitored meadows were characterized by high species richness and typical floristic composition. Area of habitat with different state of preservation was the least evaluated indicator, followed by dominant species and native expansive herb plants. Well-preserved and typically developed patches most often occupied about 50% of the transect area, but there were also stations where typical patches were not reported at all. The most often dominant species in surveyed phytocoenoses were Molinia caerulea and Galium boreale, sometimes also the species of fresh meadow and sedge were co-dominants. The most commonly listed expansive species in the habitat were as follows: Molinia caerulea, Phragmites australis, Calamagrostis epigejos, Deschampsia caespitosa and Filipendula ulmaria.
The most serious threat to Molinia meadows was the abandonment of traditional use on one hand, and too intense mowing (twice a season) on the other. The former causes overgrowing by shrubs or the dominance of expansive species, including Molinia caerulea itself, and the latter - the regression of late-blooming characteristic plants (Succisa pratensis, Dianthus superbus, Serratula tinctoria). There is little chance of proper use in future on most of the surveyed stations in river valleys, and thus effective protection of habitat 6410. Many Molinia meadow stands lie on private land (sometimes beyond the Natura 2000 areas), which makes the opportunity to influence the way of their use very limited.


State of knowledge on the butterflies
and moths (Lepidoptera) of Przedborski Landscape Park


Between 2002 and 2016, research on Lepidoptera in Przedborski Landscape Park was conducted to assert the spatial distribution and diversity of species. The butterflies and moths were caught in 8 permanent sites, located across the whole Park. Based on our research and literature data a total of 983 species were found, which represents more than 30% of all the Lepidoptera of Poland. Among them 45 species are new to ód province, and 178 species were not recorded from 安i皻okrzyskie province so far. The biggest species diversity was encountered in the "Murawy Dobromierskie" nature reserve (679 species) and at peat bogs near "Piskorzeniec" nature reserve (369 species).
Especially noteworthy were 19 species included in the "Red List of Threatened Animals in Poland", which are: Zygaena carniolica, Z. trifolii, Alucita grammodactyla, Heteropterus morpheus, Iphiclides podalirius, Papilio machaon, Lycaena dispar, Satyrium acaciae, Plebejus optilete, Boloria euphrosyne, Nymphalis xanthomelas, Limenitis populi, Apatura ilia, A. iris, Coenonympha tullia, Proserpinus proserpina, Eupithecia gelidata, Drymonia velitaris, and Spatalia argentina.
The collected material also contained a group of 36 species rarely found in Poland, and not covered by any form of protection. These are: Adelidae - Nemophora prodigellus, Argyresthiidae - Argyresthia arceuthina, A. semitestacella, Depressariidae - Agonopterix capreolella, Scythrididae - Scythris scopolella, S. seliniella, Coleophoridae - Coleophora niveicostella, C. nutantella, C. oriolella, C. ornatipennella, Cosmopterigidae - Sorhagenia lophyrella, Gelechiidae - Megacraspedus binotella, Metzneria santolinella, M. neuropterella, Monochroa palustrellus, Mirificarma lentiginosella, Aroga flavicomella, Anarsia spartiella, Nothris lemniscellus, Sessidae - Chamaesphecia tenthrediniformis, Tortricidae - Aethes fennicana, Cochylidia heydeniana, Eana derivana, Ancylis comptona, Phaneta pauperana, Argyroploce lediana, Pammene gallicana, P. spiniana, Epermeniidae - Epermenia iniquellus, Pterophoridae - Merrifieldia tridactyla, Pyralidae - Ortholepis vacciniella, Geometridae - Cyclophora albiocellaria, Pungeleria capreolaria, Gymnoscelis rufifasciata, Stegania cararia, and Noctuidae - Celaena haworthii.


Distribution and abundance of small mammals
in "Bory Tucholskie" National Park


Small mammals are an important component of terrestrial ecosystems, due to their impact on vegetation (rodents) or invertebrate communities (insectivorous mammals), and as an important source of food for predators. In years 2014-2016 eleven species of small mammals were trapped in "Bory Tucholskie" National Park. The most numerous species in the forest were the bank vole Clethrionomys glareolus and the yellow-necked mouse Apodemus flavicollis, and in open habitats - the root vole Microtus oeconomus. Other species recorded in this area were: the field vole Microtus agrestis, the harvest mouse Micromys minutus, the field striped mouse Apodemus agrarius, the wood mouse Apodemus sylvaticus, the common shrew Sorex araneus, the pygmy shrew Sorex minutus, the water shrew Neomys fodiens, and the least weasel Mustela nivalis. A higher abundance of small mammals was observed in open and more productive habitats, whereas fewer individuals were found in dry and less productive habitats. Species richness was not related to the productivity of habitats. Compared to the first inventory of small mammals conducted in 2001, five new species were recorded (the field striped mouse, the harvest mouse, the root vole, the water shrew, and the least weasel). To maintain the high diversity of small mammals in this area, it is necessary to increase the amount of dead wood in the forest ecosystems and to sustainably manage open areas.

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