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Dzika Odyseja
Izba Administracji Skarbowej w Białymstoku
Strona główna arrow Parki Narodowe i Rezerwaty Przyrody

PNRP 37(1) – 2018 r.


Bryophytes of the Na Opalonym nature reserve
in Sanocko-Turczańskie Mountains (Eastern Carpathians)


The reserve Na Opalonym was established in 1996 for the protection of the Carpathian primeval beech forest Dentario glandulosae-Fagetum. It is located in the Sanocko-Turczańskie Mountains (Eastern Carpathians), north-east of Wojtkowa village (Fig. 1), and covers 217.13 ha. The aim of the study was to recognize the bryoflora of the reserve Na Opalonym, evaluation of its value (occurrence of protected and endangered species), and analysis the habitat preferences of bryophytes.
A list of species (in alphabetical order), with information about frequency, habitat preferences, endangered and protected bryophytes, is given. The bryoflora of the reserve comprises 120 species, including 31 species of liverworts and 89 species of mosses. The most numerous are fairly frequent species (4-6 stations) - 39%. Epixylic and epiphytic habitats were the richest - containing 59 and 55 species, respectively (Fig. 2). As many as 32 species of investigated bryoflora are under legal protection in Poland - six species are strictly protected, 26 partly protected. 15 bryophytes are endangered in Poland, among others, four species are in danger of extinction: Frullania tamarisci, Neckera pennata, Porella platyphylla and Zygodon rupestris. The group of bryophytes considered as primeval forest species is also eminent and consists of three liverworts and 15 mosses (for example Bazzania trilobata, Dicranum viride, Neckera pennata and Zygodon rupestris).
The bryoflora of the Na Opalonym reserve is rich, and its high diversity is a result of the efficiency of the protection of natural tree stands with their habitat differentiation.


Natural assets of the vegetation
of the "Prądowiec" proposed Nature Reserve
in the Beskid Śląski Mountains


The proposed "Prądowiec" Nature Reserve is a place with noteworthy vegetation. In this area 7 different plant communities were noted, representing 4 vegetation classes: Betulo-Adenostyletea, Vaccinio-Piceetea, Molinio-Arrhenatheretea and Querco-Fagetea. The most common association in the study area is the montane spruce forest on peat, Bazzanio-Piceetum, which is also the most precious community as the priority habitat (91D0*), but has not yet been protected as a nature reserve in the Śląski Beskid Mts. All of the communities are presented in Tabs. 1 and 2. In "Prądowiec" 171 plant species were also noted, including only 6 alien species and 52 species which are endangered in the Silesian Province (Tab. 3). For the sake of the great natural assets of the studied area, so different from other nature reserves in the Beskid Śląski Mts, the valley of Prądowiec should be taken under law protection.


Potametum praelongi Sauer 1937
in the Smolnik nature reserve in Opole Silesia (SW Poland)


In the Smolnik nature reserve in Opole Silesia (SW Poland) phytocoenoses Potametum praelongi were found during geobotanical studies in 2015 - geographical coordinates 50°83'97,62'' N, 18°24'59,79'' E. So far Potametum praelongi has not been recorded in the area of the Smolnik nature reserve. In Poland communities are very rarely noted. In the Smolnik nature reserve patches of the community evolved in water depths of 150 - 200 cm, with a pH of 7.4. Most of them have a two-layer construction; fewer with a monolayer. This community occupies areas up to a maximum of 200 - 300 m2. From 5 to 7, an average of 6 species, were recorded. In total, the phytocenoses recorded 8 species of plants, and this is close to the number of species of this phytocoenoses in Poland and Europe.


Population state
of Lopinga achine Scopoli, 1763) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)
in Radłów Forests (Tarnów Plateau, SE Poland)


This article presents the assessment of the state of the Lopinga achine species' habitat in Poland. It is a protected and endangered species. Throughout two-year studies, the authors of this article found this particular species in Radłów forests including the nature reserve Lasy Radłowskie. The locality studied in this article is near Brzeźnica village and Radłów city. It is within the administrative borders of Tarnów municipality in Lesser Poland province (lat. 50°03' N, long. 20°48' E). The area of research is in UTM square: DA 84 (10x10 km) and it is within the mesoregion Płaskowyż Tarnowski. The observation of the species has shown the unsatisfactory state of the population and the need for further research. At the moment, the population is not endangered and it is stable.


The occurrence and abundance of amphibians
in the Knyszyn Forest Landscape Park and its buffer zone


In recent years we have been dealing with the decline in the number or disappearance of amphibian populations all over the world, including in Poland. Currently, amphibians are the group of vertebrates most threatened with extinction. This is mainly connected with increasing anthropopression, which results in the degradation of breeding sites and habitat fragmentation. This problem is particularly important because amphibians play a significant role in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, also positively affecting the human economy. As one of the most important links in the food chain, amphibians are sometimes the main source of food for many species, and as predators they regulate the number of many invertebrates, including species harmful to agriculture and forestry.
The aim of this work was to determine the distribution and abundance of amphibians in the Knyszyn Forest Landscape Park (KFLP) and its buffer zone. The studies were carried out in spring and summer of 2009 and 2010. During this time 192 water bodies such as: beaver ponds, fish ponds, small water bodies, drainage ditches, gravel pits, old river beds and flooded meadows were penetrated. Amphibians were also caught on roads, mainly during their spring migrations to aquatic breeding habitats. In total, 3144 individuals belonging to 12 lowland amphibian species were observed.
The most numerous amphibians in the area of KFLP were: green frogs Pelophylax esculentus complex (mainly pool frog Pelophylax lessonae), brown frogs (mainly common frog Rana temporaria) and common toad Bufo bufo. The rarest, occurring only in some regions of KFLP, were: green toad Bufotes viridis, natterjack toad Epidalea calamita, great crested newt Triturus cristatus, common spadefoot Pelobates fuscus and common newt Lissotriton vulgaris. We did not observe the marsh frog Pelophylax ridibundus. 27 out of 192 studied locations were classified as valuable because of high species diversity or the presence of rare species.
During the roads penetration we found 546 individuals representing 7 amphibian species and not classified green frogs. Almost 50% of the found animals were dead. The most common victims of road traffic, constituting almost 80% of all killed amphibians, were the common toad, common frog and edible frog Pelophylax esculentus. Despite the fact that live specimens of the moor frog Rana arvalis were observed, quite often during migrations, we did not find any dead individuals of this species.


Morphometric features
of the Dunajec channel within the stretch
of the Robber's Leap (Pieniny National Park)


Between Sromowce Niżne and Szczawnica, a narrow meander gorge of the Dunajec River dissects the Pieniny Mts. It is called the Pieniny Dunajec Gorge (Fig. 1), the rock faces of which exceed 400 m. Although the geological structure, origin and relief of the gap have been described in a lot of publications, its genesis has not been unambiguously resolved so far (Zuchiewicz 1982, Bikenmajer 2003, Bikenmajer 2006). Moreover, no detailed bathymetric plans of the Dunajec riverbed have been made to allow the recognition of its morphometric features. The main objective of the study was to present a bathymetric plan of the Dunajec riverbed within the so-called Robber's Leap. Its analysis allowed us to characterise the morphometric features of the riverbed in detail, as well as verify its maximum depth.
Bathymetric measurements of the Dunajec riverbed were performed using the sonar LOWRANCE HDS 5 - Gen 2 with a built-in GPS receiver. The bathymetric plan was plotted using Arc Map 10.2.1.
The most characteristic section of the Dunajec riverbed within the Pieniny Gorge is the stretch called Robber's Leap. The Dunajec channel here is the narrowest (22 m) and at the same time the deepest in the entire gorge section. The presented bathymetric plan (Fig. 2) indicates that the maximum depth of the Dunajec channel is 4.2 m. This has verified the existing data provided by Nyka (1975), Golonka et al. (2007) and Golonka et al. (2014), which showed that the maximum depth of the channel in this place is 8 m. The rock bed at the stretch of the Robber's Leap shows varied morphometry and bottom deeps of up to 4 m (Figs 3, 4, 5). This indicates that this stretch faces intense deep erosion. The deeps may also be of kettle origin. From the south-eastern side a shallow water zone stretches into the channel. It has developed on erosion-resistant chert limestone. The depth of the zone is ~1.0 m.




Vascular plants of the Wyspa Lipowa na Jeziorze Szwałk Wielki
nature reserve in the Borki Forest (NE Poland)


During the survey of Wyspa Lipowa na Jeziorze Szwałk Wielki (Borki Forest, NE Poland) 83 species of vascular plants were recorded, including 50 species previously not reported from the reserve. No single threatened species was found, and the share of ancient forest species was extremely high (more than 37% of the vascular plants recorded belong to that group), Such species composition should be considered as a characteristic feature of vascular flora of well-preserved ancient, broadleaf forests with no recent disturbance events. What is even more interesting is that no invasive species or even anthropophytes were found, which should be regarded as a unique phenomenon among Polish nature reserves. A prominent feature of the reserve is the dominance of Lunaria rediviva, a mountain species, in the herb layer. The plant cover of the reserve is outstandingly well preserved and needs a further passive conservation approach.

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