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PNRP 37(2) – 2018 r.

 

European ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.)
dieback in a core area of Bia這wie瘸 National Park

SUMMARY

It is claimed that global change and environmental pollution make trees more vulnerable to pathogens. In effect dieback of trees and entire tree stands is observed worldwide. European ash (Fraxinus excelsior) dieback has been observed in Europe since the early 1990s. The first cases of the disease in Europe were reported from NE Poland, from where the phenomenon spread across the whole of Europe. The dieback is caused by the fungus Hymenoscyphus fraxineus, which induces partial necrosis and the consequent death of trees. The aim of our study was to describe the progress and assess the scale of ash dieback in Bia這wie瘸 National Park (NE Poland). The study was conducted in a core area of the Park on two types of permanent plots. (1) Four structural plots (0.6-1.0 ha in size), where we recorded diameters at breast height (DBH) of all ash trees in 1990, 1998, 2002-2005, 2009 and 2016. Two plots were in wet mixed deciduous forest and two plots in ash-alder forest. (2) Ninety-five circular plots (400 m2 each) located in five types of forest habitat. The DBH of all trees on the circular plots was recorded in 1999 and 2009. Within 26 years (1990-2016) the number of ash trees on plots decreased by 82%-99%. The intensity of ash dieback differed significantly between the most humid: alder carr forest and mixed broadleaf bog forest, and the less humid moist broadleaf forest. In 2016 saplings were present only on one (ash-alder forest) of the four structural plots (25 trees ha-1). We conclude that unfavourable environmental conditions such as decreasing ground water level and heavy browsing could be causes of the low abundance of young ash trees, and consequently may result in the malfunction of the whole ecosystem.

 

Fish fauna of Wigry Lake (Szyja Basin)

SUMMARY

The composition of fish community in Lake Wigry (Szyja basin) was investigated using multi-mesh Nordic benthic gillnets in September 2017. A total number of 1710 fish (39.9 kg) belonging to 14 species, seven families and four ecological reproductive guilds were caught. Among them two species are protected and four are considered as vulnerable. Perca fluviatilis was the most numerous species comprising 68.1% of all individuals catch, followed by Gymnocephalus cernuus (11.2%), and Blicca bjoerkna (6.4%). Similarly, P. fluviatilis had the highest share (29.5%) of the total fish biomass catch. Meanwhile Scardinius erythrophthalmus was the second most numerous species by its biomass share (15.4%) in the total fish catch. Notably, a relatively high catch of Coregonus albula was recorded, representing 14.4% biomass of the total fish catch. The highest species richness was observed within families of Cyprinidae and Percidae, seven and two species respectively. P. fluviatilis was the most important species according to the index relative importance (IRI = 57.5%), while second most important was Scardinius erythrophthalmus (10.5%).

 

Herpetofauna of the Sieradowicka Refuge

SUMMARY

The observations were carried out in the years 2016-2018 in the area of the Site of Community Importance Sieradowicka Refuge. The SCI Sieradowicka Refuge was established in the northern part of the 安i皻okrzyskie Province to protect the northern-eastern part of 安i皻okrzyska Primeval Forest (Suchedniowski Plateau and Sieradowickie Mt.). It covers an area of 7,847.37 ha and holds 3 nature reserves: ‘‘Góra Sieradowska" (198 ha), ‘‘Wykus" (53 ha) and ‘‘Kamie Michniowski" (11 ha). The refuge is characterized by high environmental and geological diversity. Rolling hills are usually overgrown with forests. The area of the refuge covers forest communities (95% of the area), plants and agricultural lands.
Amphibians and reptiles were found in different biotopes, including forests, meadows and ponds. The research included an inventory of herpetofauna and the identification of threats, along with determining necessary protection measures. As a result 11 species of amphibians and 5 species of reptiles were found in 21 research localities. The following species were found: the alpine newt Ichthyosaura alpestris Laur., the smooth newt Lissotriton vulgaris L., the great crested newt Triturus cristatus Laur., the common toad Bufo bufo L., the European green toad Bufotes viridis Laur., the European tree frog Hyla arborea L., the edible frog Pelophylax esculentus L., the pool frog Pelophylax lessonae Cam., the marsh frog Pelophylax ridibundus Pall., the moor frog Rana arvalis Nilss., the common frog Rana temporaria L., the sand lizard Lacerta agilis L., the viviparous lizard Zootoca vivipara Jacquin, the slow worm Anguis fragilis L., the grass snake Natrix natrix L. and the common European adder Vipera berus L. (Fig. 1 and 2, Tab. 1).
The main threats to amphibians and reptiles in this area are: drying out of water bodies, water pollution, human presence and fire setting. Moreover, it was found that roads in the park cross migration corridors of animals. The most commonly killed animals were amphibians.

 

Herpetofauna of the Ch璚i雟ko-Kieleckie Hills

SUMMARY

The observations were carried out in the years 2015-2018 in the area of the Site of Community Importance Ch璚i雟ko-Kieleckie Hills. The SCI Ch璚i雟ko-Kieleckie Hills was established in the central part of the 安i皻okrzyskie Province to protect the western part of 安i皻okrzyska Primeval Forest (υpusza雟kie Hills, Przedborsko-Ma這goskie Mt., Szyd這wskie Foothils and 安i皻okrzyskie Mt.). It covers an area of 7,847.37 ha and holds 9 nature reserves: ‘‘Milechowy" (134 ha), ‘‘Biesak-Bia這gon" (13 ha), ‘‘Góra Zelejowa" (67 ha), ‘‘Góra 畝kowa" (51 ha), ‘‘Góra Miedzianka" (25 ha), ‘‘Jaskinia Raj" (8 ha), "Chelosiowa Jama" (26 ha), ‘‘Moczyd這" (16 ha) and ‘‘Góra Rzepka" (9 ha). The Ch璚i雟ko-Kieleckie Mt. are characterized by high environmental and geological diversity. Rolling hills are usually overgrown with forests. The area of the SCI covers forest communities, plants and agricultural lands.
Amphibians and reptiles were found in different biotopes, including forests, meadows and ponds. The research included an inventory of herpetofauna and the identification of threats, along with determining necessary protection measures. As a result 14 species of amphibians and 6 species of reptiles were found in 22 research localities. The following species were found: alpine newt Ichthyosaura alpestris Laur., smooth newt Lissotriton vulgaris L., great crested newt Triturus cristatus Laur., Bombina bombina L., common spadefoot toad Pelobates fuscus Laur., common toad Bufo bufo L., natterjack toad Epidalea calamita Laur., European green toad Bufotes viridis Laur., European tree frog Hyla arborea L., edible frog Pelophylax esculentus L., pool frog Pelophylax lessonae Cam., marsh frog Pelophylax ridibundus Pall., moor frog Rana arvalis Nilss., common frog Rana temporaria L., sand lizard Lacerta agilis L., viviparous lizard Zootoca vivipara Jacquin, slow worm Anguis fragilis L., grass snake Natrix natrix L., smooth snake Coronella austriaca Laur. and common European adder Vipera berus L. (Fig. 1 and 2, Tab. 1).
The main threats to amphibians and reptiles in this area are: mining of natural rock resources (so called "White Mining Region"), drying out of water bodies, water pollution, human presence and fire setting. The area of the SCI includes a number of busy roads (including national road 7, and provincial routes 762, 763 and 728), which results in the significant problem of migrating amphibians being killed by cars.

 

Bats of Bolimowski Landscape Park and surroundings

SUMMARY

The bat fauna of Bolimowski Landscape Park and the neighbouring area (Fig. 1) has been studied for several decades, especially in the years 2003-2004 and 2015-2017. All data published so far and unpublished data were combined and analysed in this paper. In total, 14 species were recorded. For 13 species breeding was proved (signs of lactation or the presence of juvenile individuals). Serotine Eptesicus serotinus, noctule Nyctalus noctula, brown long-eared bat Plecotus auritus and barbastelle Barbastella barbastellus belong to species frequently noted and dominating bat assemblages, while great mouse-eared bat Myotis myotis, whiskered bat M. mystacinus, Brandt's bat M. brandtii, parti-coloured bat Vespertilio murinus and Leisler's bat Nyctalus leisleri belong to rarely noted species. Most data were obtained during bat netting in various sites and forest habitats. The most frequent within bats netted over forest roads were brown eared-bats and noctules, and close to water reservoirs - noctules and Daubenton's bats Myotis daubentonii (Table 1). Relatively scarce data on bats roosting in buildings (Table 2) showed that at least five species formed nursery colonies in this area (great mouse-eared bat, Natterer's bat Myotis nattereri, serotine, Nathusius' pipistrelle Pipistrellus nathusii and brown long-eared bat). Winter bat roosts were found in cellars and basements or underground military shelters. Six species occurred in this type of roost. The most frequent and abundant were brown long-eared bats (nearly 60% of individuals) (Table 3). Analyses of owls' pellets revealed nine species of bat, among them Brandt's bat, parti-coloured bat (Table 4) and great mouse eared bat. Bolimowski Landscape Park, with its surroundings, is an important refuge of bats. Probably in this part of Poland, which is highly deforested, a bat assemblage in this area is relatively valuable and comparable to those from other large forest complexes (Fig. 1).

 

The participation of national parks
in the protection of natural habitats and Nature 2000 species

SUMMARY

The goal of this work is to present the valorisation of national parks based on the criteria resulting from standard data forms (SDF). The analysis covered a number of areas protected under the Birds Directive and Habitats Directive with the A, B or C categories. Habitats and species marked D in the SDF are not protected in Nature 2000 areas, which is why they were not taken into account in the analysis. The presented characteristics made it possible to determine the hierarchy of national parks amongst the most valuable natural resources that deserve protection in the first place, and also to verify views on the most valuable areas.

 

SHORT FLORISTIC, FAUNISTIC AND MICOBIOTIC NOTES

 

New localities of hard-fern Blechnum spicant (L.) ROTH
in the Zagna雟k Forest District (the Kielce Upland)

SUMMARY

Hard-fern is wintergreen fern with dimorphous leaves. In Poland the localities of the species are mainly in mountain regions. In the lowlands they are scattered across the country. The fern grows mostly in forests belonging to the Piceion abietis alliance. Blechnum spicant is a protected species in Poland and is threatened in the Ma這polska Uplands (CR category).
In the years 2014-2016 five new localities of Blechnum spicant were found in the 安i皻okrzyskie Mountains and Suchedniów Plateau (Kielce Upland). The new localities are placed in two ATPOL squares - EE63 and EE64. The species occurs in forest communities with the silver fir (Abies alba) in the tree-stand. The discovered populations of Blechnum spicant counted from one to four individuals. The plants dominated in the vegetative phase. The hard-fern is potentially threatened by factors connected with forest management.



 
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