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PNRP 37(3) – 2018 r.

 

Bryophytes from meadow habitats
in Ojców National Park and its buffer zone
(Kraków Upland)

SUMMARY

The paper presents a list of 50 bryophyte species (44 mosses, 5 liverworts, 1 hornworth) with short descriptions of their localities and habitats. It is a result of the investigation conducted in 2011 – 2017 on meadows, pastures and tall forb communities in Ojców National Park (ONP) (Kraków Upland). The list includes 7 species partly protected by law (Abietinella abietina, Calliergonella cuspidata, Climacium dendroides, Eurhynchium angustirete, Pseudoscleropodium purum, Rhytidiadelphus squarrosus, Thuidium philibertii). Synusial moss communities illustrated by 40 phytosociological relevés were listed and briefly characterized. The main group of meadows in ONP represents the Arrhenatheretum elatioris association. Those meadows occur in different microclimatic regions. They are also characterized by different management history. The high ecological differentiation of meadow bryoflora is a consequence of the mosaic distribution of plant communities. Further studies on seedling recruitment and vascular plant-bryophyte interaction are important for the effective conservation of species-rich fresh meadows in ONP.

 

Epiphytic lichens of circular permanent plots
in Karkonosze National Park (SW Poland)

SUMMARY

Monitoring of lichens was carried out in three stages in 2004 – 2016 on 708 circular monitored permanent plots distributed evenly in the forests of Karkonosze National Park (SW Poland). In total, over 130 lichen taxa were found, out of which 114 were determinated for the species. The work presents their list, including the selection of which species were found in the monitoring stage. Only a few taxa have turned out to be ephemeral, and their attempts to settle in the Park have been unsuccessful so far. An increase in the taxonomic diversity of the biota of lichens was found. The quantity of most species and the number of their localities are also increasing. These phenomena are part of the recolonization process of lichens observed throughout Europe.

 

Herpetofauna of the Jeleniowska Refuge

SUMMARY

The observations were carried out in the years 2016 – 2017 in the area of the Site of Community Importance Jeleniowska Refuge. The SCI Jeleniowska Refuge was established in the central part of 安i皻okrzyskie Province to protect the eastern part of the 安i皻okrzyska Primeval Forest. The 安i皻okrzyskie Mountains are among the oldest in Europe. They were moved up during the Palaeozoic orogeneses and are the only mountains in Central Poland. The mountains are isolated from the other ones, and are their characteristic features are: low altitude and specific habitat conditions (geology, geomorphology, soils, climate, plant cover, etc.).
The area of the refuge covers forest communities (95% of the area), meadows and stony mid-forest fields. It covers an area of 3,589.24 ha and holds 3 nature reserves: ‘‘Góra Jeleniowska" (16 ha), ‘‘Szczytniak" (6 ha) and ‘‘Ma貫 Go這borze" (20 ha). The refuge is characterized by high geological diversity (rocks of Cambrian, Ordovician, Devonian and Carboniferous).
The observations covered different biotopes, including forests, meadows, stony mid-forest fields and ponds. The research included an inventory of herpetofauna and the identification of threats, along with determining necessary protection measures. As a result 9 species of amphibians and 5 species of reptiles were found in 14 research localities. The following species were found: alpine newt Ichthyosaura alpestris Laur., smooth newt Lissotriton vulgaris L., great crested newt Triturus cristatus Laur., common toad Bufo bufo L., European green toad Bufotes viridis Laur., European tree frog Hyla arborea L., edible frog Pelophylax esculentus L., pool frog Pelophylax lessonae Cam., marsh frog Pelophylax ridibundus Pall., moor frog Rana arvalis Nilss., common frog Rana temporaria L., sand lizard Lacerta agilis L., viviparous lizard Zootoca vivipara Jacquin, slow worm Anguis fragilis L., grass snake Natrix natrix L. and common European adder Vipera berus L. (Fig. 1 and 2, Tab. 1).
The main threats to amphibians and reptiles in this area are: drying out of water bodies, water pollution, human presence, tourism, fire setting, forestry practices and car traffic.

 

Herpetofauna of the Stawiany Refuge

SUMMARY

The research was carried out in the years 2017 – 2018 in the area of the Site of Community Importance Stawiany Refuge. The SCI is located in the Szydów Foothills and Po豉niec Basin (安i皻okrzyskie Province, central Poland). The refuge is characterized by high environmental and geological diversity (e.g. karst phenomena). Sedimentary rocks from the Jurassic, Cretaceous and Neogene Period are exposed and include most of all marls, limestone, gypsum, clays and sands. The gypsum rocks occurring there are built of large crystals often joined together, of impressive length up 3.5 m. The area of the refuge covers agricultural lands, meadow communities, forests and numerous ponds.
The research included an inventory of herpetofauna and the identification of threats, along with determining necessary protection measures. As a result 12 species of amphibians and 5 species of reptiles were found in 15 research localities. The following species were found: great crested newt Triturus cristatus Laur., smooth newt Lissotriton vulgaris L., European fire-bellied toad Bombina bombina L., common spadefoot toad Pelobates fuscus Laur., common toad Bufo bufo L., European green toad Bufotes viridis Laur., European tree frog Hyla arborea L., edible frog Pelophylax esculentus L., pool frog Pelophylax lessonae Cam., marsh frog Pelophylax ridibundus Pall., common frog Rana temporaria L., moor frog Rana arvalis Nilss., sand lizard Lacerta agilis L., viviparous lizard Zootoca vivipara Jacquin, slow worm Anguis fragilis L., grass snake Natrix natrix L. and common European adder Vipera berus L.
The main danger to herpetofauna results from unfavourable changes of water relationships, which causes decreasing water levels and drying out of water bodies. What is worse is that eutrophication of ponds, fish stocking, surface water pollution, deadly collisions of migrating batrachofauna with cars, and grassland fires were observed there.

 

Satellite images as a useful tool for detecting the Great Egret Ardea alba
based on the example of Biebrza National Park

SUMMARY

This article presents the usefulness of satellite images for the assessment of the number of Great Egret Ardea alba breeding pairs in the studied area, and in the reconstruction and tracking of the expansion and colonization of new areas. The research used free satellite images from Google Earth showing the area of Biebrza National Park. Photos of this area came from 30.04.2014, that is from the optimal time to search for Great Egret nests. During the research (1), the results of the breeding pairs counts during the inventory of occupied nests obtained with the classic method from the ground by ornithologists, and from satellite images were compared based on the example of a breeding colony known since 1997. (2) Next, it was checked whether this method can be used to search for earlier nesting of the Great Egret in a given area that is commonly known. (3) Finally, potential breeding habitats were analyzed in a 50-kilometre section of the Biebrza River to detect potential new breeding colonies. (1) The results suggest that counting nests on low-resolution satellite images due to low contrast may reduce their number by as much as 70%. (2) The satellite images allow the detection of much earlier nesting of the Great Egret in a given area that is commonly known (55 breeding pairs were discovered in a colony known from 2016). (3) And finally, the satellite images allow the detection of completely new breeding colonies of the Great Egret – 3 colonies of 91, 19 and 18 breeding pairs were detected. The presented method gives a great opportunity to trace back-colonization of new areas by the Great Egret. In addition, it allows a more precise estimation of the breeding population in the studied area, especially in extensive wetland areas. More accurate results should be achieved by using high-resolution paid for images.

 

Restitution of European bison (Bison bonasus)
in Bia這wie瘸 and the most common health problems
of the species in the wild and captive populations in Poland

SUMMARY

At the beginning of the 20th century, free-living European bison (Bison bonasus) survived only in the Bia這wie瘸 Forest and the Caucasus. As a consequence of the First World War, all lowland-bison living in the Bia這wie瘸 Forest have been killed. In May 1923, a strategy to reintroduce the European bison in Bia這wie瘸 was presented at the international congress for nature conservation in Paris. ln the same year, the international Society for the Protection of the European Bison was founded. ln 1931, the goal to maintain the purity of the species led to creating a studbook that is known as the European Bison Pedigree Book. Since 1991,  the editorial office of this studbook is located in the Bia這wie瘸 National Park.
In September 19, 1929, the Bia這wie瘸 Forest received the first two bison into an enclosure especially built for them. The breeding progressed well, so that at the end of 1939, Poland already had 37 European bison, of which 16 were living in the breeding reserve at the Bia這wie瘸 National Park. After the Second World War, 620 animals from the Bia這wie瘸's reserve were brought to other Polish and foreign facilities (238 animals into closed reserves and 382 initiated free-living herds) to create new populations.
Since the population of the European bison was on the verge of extinction at the beginning of the twentieth century, every single animal was very valuable, and therefore the health of the European bison has been and is still today the most important aspect of the protection of the species and further development of the population. The best method for health control are the necropsies of dead animals, which at the same time secure samples for further examination. The post-mortem diagnostics show that the most common diseases of the European bison are: pneumonia, pulmonary emphysema, nephritis, injuries and lesions in the digestive tract. The most pathological findings were more frequently observed in the selectively eliminated bison in comparison to fallen and healthy immobilized for sampling bison. This confirms the correctness of selection under veterinary supervision as a tool to ensure a healthy development of the European bison population and to minimize the number of animals that could be a potential source of infectious and invasive diseases.
The continued existence of captive breeding facilities is an important aspect of reintroduction programs of the European bison, as these centres follow veterinary procedures, thus ensuring the preservation of the most valuable breeder animals with precisely defined pedigree as a genetic reserve.

 

SHORT FLORISTIC, FAUNISTIC AND MICOBIOTIC NOTES

 

New breeding record
of Leisler's bat Nyctalus leisleri (Kuhl, 1817)
in Lubuskie province

SUMMARY

Leisler's bat Nyctalus leisleri is associated with forest habitat. It is also one of the most rarely found bats in Poland. Most of the observations of this species come from the east of the country. Lubuskie province is characterized by the largest percentage of forest cover in Poland – 49.1%, and seems to be an appropriate region for the species. In spite of this, in Lubuskie province only a couple of individuals of Leisler's bat have been caught up to now, in the south, near the town of Leszno Dolne UTM – WT40 (υchy雟ki et al. 2002). Three individuals of Leisler's bat Nyctalus leisleri (Kuhl, 1817), including a pregnant female, were caught during faunal research in the "Nietoperek" Natura 2000 site. Bats were caught during a netting session carried out near Pieski village (UTM – WU20 Polish Atlas of Mammalian distribution: square – 03Hi), 200 m outside the site boundary, on 28th May 2014. Finding a pregnant female suggests the presence of a breeding colony near the netting site. In addition, the proximity of the Natura 2000 site, containing fragments of well-preserved deciduous woodland, suggests that this is an area of suitable habitat for Leisler's bat.

 
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