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PNRP 28(2) – 2009 r.

The degree of infestation of Pinus sylvestris L. by Phellinus pini (BROT.: FR.) A. AMES,
in the strictly protected area “Nart” in the Kampinoski National Park


The study shows the degree of infestation of Pinus sylvestris L. by Phellinus pini (BROT.: FR.) A. AMES, in the strictly protected area “Nart” in the Kampinoski National Park. Phellinus pini attacks heartwood, causing white pocket rot. In the “Nart” area, covering 16.57 ha, 220 pine trees (more than two hundred-years-old) were examined. The height and breast height diameter of eachtree were measured. To identify the potential inner rot occurrence each trunk was tapped (knocked) at the height of 1 meter and the number of P. pini fruitbodies and their location (the height and the geographical direction) on the trunk were recoreded.
Phellinus pini fruitbodies were found in 51.4% of the examined pine trees. The acoustic research method (tapping the trunk at a height of 1 meter) showed that most pine trees had symptoms of inner rot in their trunks.
Only 23 pine trees (10.5%), out of 220, were completely healthy and did not show any symptoms of infestation (no P. pini fruitbodies or acoustic reaction were found).

The range of trophic abilities and preferences
of Fomitopsis officinalis (VILL.) BONDARTSEV et SINGER
isolate, collected in the nature protected area of “Che軛owa Góra”
and investigated in vitro


Quinine conk (Fomitopsis officinalis (VILL.) BONDARTSEV et SINGER) is one of the rarest and most endangered wood decaying fungi species in Poland. The only way to protect it against extinction seem to be the reintroduction methods. In Central Europe there is a problem, because this species occurs exclusively on larch, attacking trees from the 6th and older age classes (over 100 years old). Now, the main cause of the extinction of Quinine fungus is the lack of old larch stands. However, in other countries this species is able to occur not only on larch but also on trees from the Abies, Cedrus, Picea, Pinus, Pseudotsuga and Tsuga genus. So, theoretically, it is not impossible that Polish populations of this critically endangered fungus would be able to use them as hosts.
In this work some research results of the trophic preferences and abilities range of the Polish Fomitopsis officinalis population from the protected area of “Che軛owa Góra” (a part of 安i皻okrzyski National Park, where the biggest natural population of this species in Poland lives) were presented. Wood samples of 25 different tree species (including 16 European or introduced species and 9 exotic species) were exposed on mycelium in vitro. The exposure time was 30, 60 and 90 days. The results showed that in laboratory conditions the mycelium of Fomitopsis officinalis presents a totally different range of trophic abilities and preferences than what could be seen in nature. The fastest decay was observed in the wood samples of Fraxinus excelsior (7.30% of the dry mass loss after 90 days of exposure). The wood of Larix decidua – which is a natural substrate for this fungus – was destroyed at a much slower rate (1.97%). Similar results were observed in the wood of Salix fragilis (1.57%) and Tabebuja sp. (1.51%). In the case of other (except of larch) coniferous species included in the study, a significant extent of wood decay was not observed. Basing on this results it is clear that in the case of the Polish population of Fomitopsis officinalis coming from 安i皻okrzyskie Mountains the only respectable hosts could be larch trees, and they should be used exclusively for reintroduction trials of this fungus. The usefulness of other coniferous trees or – even though the in vitro tests results might be interpreted as promising – Fraxinus excelsior seems to be doubtful.

Lichens of the nature reserve of “Starodrzew Szyndzielski”
in Knyszy雟ka Forest Landscape Park (north-eastern Poland)


The paper contains a list of lichens and analyses their ecological preferences in the “Starodrzew Szyndzielski” nature reserve. The taxonomic diversity of lichen biota is large. As a result of field studies carried out in 1997 and 2007, 115 lichen species from 56 genera were found. The richest in species are the genera of: Lecanora (14 species), Cladonia (13) and Pertusaria (7). Lichens represent all morphological forms. Epiphytes are the dominant group of lichen biota in the reserve. A range of taxons that are rare in the national scale takes a stand here, featuring natural forest complexes. They are characterized by high ecological demands and include, without limitation: Arthonia vinosa, Bryoria implexa, Calicium viride, Chrysothrix candelaris, Loxospora elatina, Pertusaria flavida, P. leioplaca, P. pertusa, Pyrenula nitida, P. nitidella, Thelotrema lepadinum.
This is the first stand of Fellhanera subtilis in Knyszy雟ka Forest. Among 115 lichen species, 38 taxa are on the Red List of extinct and threatened lichens in Poland (CIE印I垶KI et al. 2006) and 11 are included in the regional list of threatened lichens and allied fungi (CIE印I垶KI 2003 b).
In 2008 many oaks were cut down, for this reason the populations of rare and threatened species of lichens have decreased. Long-term monitoring is essential to investigate further changes in the lichen biota in the “Starodrzew Szyndzielski” nature reserve.

The lichens of the “Dziektarzewo” nature reserve


The lichenological studies in the nature reserve “Dziektarzewo” were conducted since April until May 2008. The reserve is situated in the north-west part of the Mazovia region, in the vicinity of the Dziektarzewo village, on the slope of the Wkra river. This site protects mixed oldgrowth forest of natural origin (Querco roboris – Pinetum, Tilio – Carpinetum). As a result of the research rare in Poland and very interesting species were recorded: Agonimia allobata, Biatora efflorescens, Biatoridium monasteriense, Fuscidea arboricola, Micarea viridileprosa, Mycobilimbia epixanthoides and Rinodina degeliana. The identified biota includes 21 species from the red list of lichens threatened with extinction in Poland, with two classified as critically endangered (CR) (Chaenotheca chlorella, Chrysothrix candelaris), four as endangered (EN) (Arthonia byssacea, Bacidia subincompta, Chaenotheca stemonea, Opegrapha vermicellifera), seven as vulnerable (VU) (Acrocordia gemmata, Biatora eflorescens, B. globulosa, Calicium viride, Opegrapha viridis, Ramalina farinacea, Usnea hirta) and eight as near threatened (NT) (Bacidina arnoldiana, Biatoridium monasteriense, Chaenotheca furfuracea, C. trichialis, Evernia prunastri, Graphis scripta, Opegrapha varia, Pertusaria coccodes). The characteristic feature of the lichen biota of the analysed reserve is a relatively large number of species – indices of lowland old-growth forests (Arthonia byssacea, Calicium viride, Chaenotheca chlorella, Chrysothrix candelaris, Microcalicium disseminatum, Opegrapha vermicellifera, O. viridis).

Aculeata (Hymenoptera) of the chosen protected areas
in the Mi璠zyrzecze Warty and Widawki Landsacape Park


In years 2001 – 2008 in the Mi璠zyrzecze Warty and Widawki Landscape Park entomological studies had been carried on in three protected areas: the “Winnica” reserve, the “Góry Wapienne” Nature and Landscape Complex and the ecological site of “Góra Charlawa”. 214 species of Aculeata were found, among which 145 taxons were new in the Park. Considering previous data from references, there are currently 232 species of Aculeata in the Park area (22.1% of Polish fauna of this group of insects). The numbers of species found in the studied areas area as follows: “Winnica” – 122, „Góry Wapienne” – 88 and “Góra Charlawa” – 121. Eleven species of Apiformes are new in the ód region. These are: Colletes marginatus, Andrena falsifica, A. nycthemera, Halictus simplex, Seladonia gavarnica, Lasioglossum sexnotatulum, Evylaeus linearis, E. malachurus, E. parvulus, Rhophitoides canus and Sphecodes rufiventris. In the gathered material 32 endangered species (15% of all taxons), 26 species that are rare or very rare in Poland and 13 protected species have been found. The shares of endangered species in the clusters of Aculeata present in studied protected areas amount to: “Winnica” – 12.3% (15 species), “Góry Wapienne” – 14.8% (13), “Góra Charlawa” – 13.2% (16). The authors believe that all three studied protected areas should be recognized as valuable mainstays of Aculeata in Mi璠zyrzecze Warty and Widawki Landscape Park.

Insects damaging fruits and seeds of the rowan-tree Sorbus aucuparia L.
in the Gorce National Park


The study on the species composition of the insects damaging fruits and seeds of the rowan-tree Sorbus aucuparia L. was carried out in the Gorce National Park, compartment 119 a, in 2003 – 2004. A total of 10 800 fruits were collected, including 6000 fruits from 15 growing trees in 2003 and fruits gathered from 12 trees in 2004. From each tree 400 fruits (a sample) were randomly collected. All fruit samples were analyzed in a laboratory to estimate the quantity those infested by insect larvae. Next, the fruits and the larvae found during analyses were subjected to mass rearing. In order to compare fruit infestation by Argyresthia conjugella ZELL. (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae), the indices of fruit infestation were calculated. One of them – the absolute index – was calculated by dividing the number of A. conjugella individuals by the number of all fruits in the sample; the other, i.e. the relative index, was calculated by dividing the number of A. conjugella indiv. by the number of damaged fruits in the sample.
On the basis of the results damaging insects were found: Argyresthia conjugella ZELL. (Fig. 1) (1501 indiv.) and Megastigmus brevicaudis RATZ. (2 indiv). A. conjugella caused serious losses in the fruits, from 24.52% (in 2004) to 28.75% (in 2003) (Tables 1, 2).
The absolute index of fruit infestation by A. conjugella had similar values for both years. The relative index showed distinct differences in the values for two consecutive years (Table 1, 2).
During the study period the following parasitoids of A. conjugella were reared: Microgaster polita MARSH., Apanteles lineipes WESM., Meteorus polita (WESM.) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and Helotorus capitator TOWN. (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae); a total of 16 indiv. (Table 3).
Its percentage in relation to the number of its host amounted to 1%. It indicates weak resistance of the environment to fruit- and seminiphagous insect species.
The studies of the dynamics of the populations of these insects should be continued.

European beaver Castor fiber L. sites in the S御powska Valley (Ojców National Park)
in the years 2005 – 2007 in comparison with the years 1985 – 1992


Beavers occupied the S御powska Valley after their introduction in the years 1985 – 1992, then they abandoned the valley and returned there after 12 years. This paper compares the beaver sites of two periods: 1985 – 1992 and 2005 – 2007, on the basis of a series of beaver-dam inventories, which included mainly measurements of the dam lengths, heights and the depth of water banked up by them. It is most likely that in the years 1985 – 1992 only one beaver site could be find on the S御pówka stream. The traces of rodent existence concentrated on this site alternately in two places: near the mouth of the Jamki Ravine (W患óz Jamki) and by the 毒ód豉 spod Graba spring. In the years 2005 – 2007, apart from their old refuge, the animals took up a new site in the vicinity of the settlement of Warzechówka.
During both studied periods beaver behaviours and building activity showed either similarities or differences. The location of one site in the middle course of the S御pówka stream, and the situation of the two biggest beaver-dams near the mouth of the Jamki Ravine and by the 毒ód豉 spod Graba spring were the same, which most probably resulted from unchanged physiographical conditions.
Beaver introduction into the valley in 1985 was man initiated, the second colonization that occurred 12 years later was spontaneous. The colonization of the stream during both periods proceeded differently as concerns its directions: in the years 1985 – 1992 beavers occupied the Saspówka stream near the mouth of the Jamki Ravine and moved upstream – towards the 毒ód豉 spod Graba spring. In the years 2005 – 2007 they colonized the stream starting generally from its upper course and moving downstream (sites near 毒ód豉 spod Graba and in the neighbourhood of the settlement of Warzechówka appeared almost at the same time). Within the first period of colonization the building activity of animals was more intense in comparison to the second period: in the years 1985 – 1992 there were 26 beaver-dams altogether, while in the years 2005 – 2007 – their number declined to 17. During the second period of the survey the greatest number of beaver-dams was observed at site I in the vicinity of the settlement of Warzechówka which previously was not occupied at all.
Observations of the traces of beaver habitation distribution conducted so far show that the density of rodent sites is really high – two sites within the short, only 2.5-kilometre-long stretch of the S御pówka.

The Natura 2000 area “Pradolina Warszawsko-Berli雟ka”
valley as a refuge for valuable vascular plant species


The Warsaw-Berlin marginal stream valley is the largest protected marshy area in Central Poland. The botanical studies from the 50s and 60s of the XXth century showed that this area was at that time days an important refuge for many valuable species of vascular plants. A thorough botanical study of the Warsaw-Berlin marginal stream valley was carried out in the growing seasons of 2005 – 2007.
The goal of those studies was to get to know the current flora of this area and compare the obtained results with historical data. During the studies the presence of the localities of: Liparis loeselii, Blysmus rufus, Spergularia media, Juncus ranarius i Salicornia herbacea was not confirmed. Apart from that radical decrease of other populations of hydrophytes and halophytes was detected. In spite of many adverse changes 56 precious species of vascular plants were found. The most numerous group forms taksons of hydrophilous and higrophilous habitat. There were 5 species in this group, for which the Warsaw-Berlin marginal stream valley is a major site of occurrence in Central Poland. It is particularly worth to notice Glaux maritima i Lathyrus palustris – endangered species in Poland. The obtained results prove that in spite of many adverse changes in this area, it is still a significant refuge for many vulnerable and endangered species in Central Poland. It is necessary to take active protection measures in order to keep the existing localities of plants. Agro-environmental programs may be helpful in implementing them.

The Natura 2000 area “ㄠka w B璚zkowicach”
as a refuge for valuable species of vascular plants – problems and perspectives of protection


The Natura 2000 area of “ㄠka w B璚zkowicach” was created in order to protect Liparis loeselii – a species listed in Annex II to Directive 92/43/EEC and also a few habitat types from Annex I to Directive 92/43/EEC, such as: alkaline fens (7230 code) and transition mires and quaking bogs (7140 code). In the years 2007 – 2008 a study was conducted in order to identify vascular flora, determine the condition of the populations of selected rare and endangered species and get to know the impact of plant’s succession on their position. As a result of the study, 269 species of vascular plant were found, 21 of whicy were rare or protected. Liparis loeselii is the most precious. Its population had a significant number of about 60 individuals. Plants in the generative phase dominated there and there was a small number of juvenile individuals. The reason of the adverse age structure may be the difficulty in seedlings’ germination which is caused by great density of plant cover, increase of shading and the large necromass’ layer. The largest number and stability characterize the populations of Epipactis palustris and Senecio rivularis. In both species we can observe the appearance of new individuals. However, progressing plant’s succession may cause their extinction in the future. Species which exist in many places but singly or in several individuals are Dactylorhiza majalis and Ranunculus lingua. In the case of the first of them this spatial structure may mean a gradual retreat due to cessation of land use. Within the limits of the small population of Carex davalliana there was no changes during the last several years. The remaining species that were observed – Scrophularia umbrosa and Ophioglossum vulgatum were found only in a single position in a small quantity. According to the study the biggest danger for the existing species under investigation is plant’s succession. The most precious, northern and central parts of the studied area were excluded from land’s use in the middle of the eighties of the last century. This area was also drained, which contributed significantly to the acceleration of expansion of pioneer trees, tall-herb species, Phragmites austrialis and another nitrophilous species. To effectively protect patches of peat bogs existing until now it is necessary to improve and stabilize the water conditions, eliminate wooded places and reed fields from the part with the largest natural value and renew extensive mowing. Agro-environmental programs are the financial instrument which can encourage landowners to renew agriculture use of land. However, the implementation thereof in this case can meet difficulties because of small sizes of plots on this territory and complicated proprietary relations.


A new locality of Gentiana pneumonante in the Bia這wie瘸 National Park


A new locality of Gentiana pneumonante (L.) in the Bia這wie瘸 National Park (NE Poland) was found. Gentiana pneumonante is a rare and endangered vascular plant in Poland. A new locality of the species was found in 2005 of the Bia這wie瘸 National Park.

New localities of interesting Aculeata (Hymenoptera) in ód region


In the work new localities of 21 endangered, rare and protected species of Aculeata from the families of: Chrysididae, Vespidae, Sphecidae, Crabronidae and Apidae are given. They were identified mainly in Bolimowski, Spalski, Sulejowski, Przedborski and Za喚cza雟ki Landscape Parks and 4 species were found in the planned area of Nature 2000 – PLB 100001, located in the Warsaw-Berlin proglacial stream valley. Tree species – Sceliphron destillatorium, Hylaeus styriacus and Andrena limata are new in the ód region. Authors suggest to include Oxybelus victor in the “Red list of threatened animals in Poland”, and give it the VU category (vulnerable species).

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