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PNRP 38(2) – 2019 r.

State of knowledge on the butterflies
and moths (Lepidoptera) of Załęcze Landscape Park


Between 2014 and 2018, research on Lepidoptera in Załęcze Landscape Park was conducted to assess the spatial distribution and diversity of species. The butterflies and moths were caught in 8 permanent sites, located across the whole Park, including four nature reserves. Based on our research and the literature, data on a total 944 species, which represents more than 29% of all Lepidoptera in Poland, were reported for this area. Among them, 29 species are new to Łódź province, and 12 species had not before been recorded from Silesia province so. The biggest species diversity was encountered in the "Węże" nature reserve (488 species) and at the Lisowice site (318 species).
Especially noteworthy are 12 species included in the "Red List of Threatened Animals in Poland", which are: Zygaena carniolica, Alucita grammodactyla, Apomyelois bistriatella, Papilio machaon, Lycaena dispar, Pseudophilotes vicrama, Phengaris arion, Limenitis populi, Apatura ilia, Apatura iris, Drymonia velitaris and Spatalia argentina.
The collected material also contained a group of 15 species very rarely found in Poland (during 1986 - 2015 recorded in 1 - 4 provinces), and not covered by any form of protection. These are: Gracillariidae - Ornixola caudulatella, Argyresthiidae - Argyresthia fundella, Coleophoridae - Coleophora ornatipennella, C. scabrida, C. tanaceti, Gelechiidae - Megacraspedus binotella, Mirificarma lentiginosella, Scrobipalpa ocellatella, Tortricidae - Acleris nigrilineana, A. schalleriana, Ancylis comptana, Alucitidae - Alucita grammodactyla, Pterophoridae - Amblyptilia acanthadactyla, Oxyptilus chrysodactyla, Lycaenidae - Pseudophilotes vicrama.


Lesser (Clanga pomarina) and greater (C. clanga) spotted eagles
in the National Park "Belovezhskaja Pushcha": current status and retrospective analysis


In the period between 2000-2015 spotted eagle surveys were implemented in "Belovezhskaja Pushcha" National Park (Belarus) at three monitoring plots by visual observations with the aid of spotting scopes. Apart from that, in 2008 spotted eagle surveys covered the historic part of Belovezhskaja Pushcha (the territory of the former Zapovednik) and Dzikaje mire, with the exception of Jasien and Jazviny forestries. In 2014-2015 a targeted search for Greater spotted eagle (Clanga clanga) (GSE) and mixed pairs was conducted at all suitable habitats on the territory of the Park. Based on the information gathered over this period, the population of the Lesser spotted eagle (Clanga pomarina) (LSE) in the historic part of Belovezhskaja Pushcha in 2008 was estimated at 50-60 breeding pairs, which corresponds to the population of the species in the middle of XXth century. Over the last decade a local decrease in numbers of LSE has been observed, which can be attributed to the abandonment of mowing at Dzikaje mire. The current number of conspecific pairs of GSE is 7 breeding pairs. A seeming increase in numbers of the species in the whole territory of the National Park over the period from 2000 to 2015 can probably be attributed to improved qualifications of the participants of the surveys. The numbers of GSE at monitoring plots have not changed. Apart from that, from one to three mixed pairs of GSE and LSE were recorded. In two cases the pairs were established by female GSE and male LSE of typical phenotype; in one case a reverse composition was observed. In recent years a decrease in the number of mixed pairs has been observed.


Results of monitoring selected bird species
in Polesie National Park


In Polesie National Park (PPN), in the breeding season of 2018, the population of 23 bird species was monitored, and the following species were counted: Circus pygargus (4 pairs), Circus cyaneus (no breeding cases), Circus aeruginosus (8 p), Ciconia ciconia (5-10 p), Tetrao tetrix (2 males), Gallinago media (15-18 males), Dendrocopos leucotos (5-10 p), Dryocopus martius (15- 20 p), Dendrocopos medius (10-15 p), Picus canus (4-5 pairs), Lanius collurio (30-40 p), Sylvia nisoria (10 p), Porzana porzana (11 territories ), Caprimulgus europaeus (0-1 p), Lullula arborea (21-30 p), Ficedula parva (3-5 p), Emberiza hortulana (0-1 p), Luscinia svecica (4 p), Acrocephalus paludicola (404 males), Alcedo atthis (1 p), Grus grus (33-35 p). From among the monitored birds, the most important species (over 1% of the national population) in Poleski National Park is the Great snipe (15-18 males, 3.8% of the national population) and the Aquatic warbler (12.6% of the national population and 3.7% of the world population).


Recovery of the European Bison in Białowieża Forest - 90 years of the restitution


In September 2019, the 90th anniversary of the European bison restitution in Białowieża Primeval Forest will be celebrated. The article presents the history of activities performed during the revival process of European bison breeding in the reserves of Białowieża National Park. A crucial role in the restitution of Bison bonasus species in Białowieża, in 1929-1939, was played by five animals: M 163 BORUSSE, F 93 BISERTA, F 161 BISCAYA, M 229 PLISCH, F 519 POGANKA and F520 POLANA (Table 1). The male BORUSSE belonged to the Lowland-Caucasian line, while the remaining European bison were of the pure Lowland blood line of Bison bonasus bonasus. The article emphasizes that the restitution of the European bison was possible through national and international cooperation with centres where individual animals were saved from extinction. The successful course of restitution of the species in Białowieża Forest resulted in a significant increase in the number of European bison. Białowieża Forest is currently inhabited by the largest lowland European bison population in the world, where around 1000 European bison can be found: over 500 in the Polish part and nearly 500 in the Belarusian part. With the increase in the number of European bison and its density, infectious and invasive diseases to which bison are susceptible have become the main threat. The future of European bison depends on wise action for this Polish symbol of nature protection. The most important activities are those that raise the social acceptance of free-living European bison, and those which allow the effective protection of their health, as the most important element to ensure the survival of the species.




Southern skimmer Orthetrum brunneum (Fonsc.) (Odonata, Libellulidae) -
- 58th odonate species found in the Poleski National Park


A hunting female of Orthetrum brunneum was recorded on 14.06.2019 on a transitional peat bog in the Poleski National Park (51°24'21.6" N, 23°06'24.5" E, UTM: FB49). It was probably an individual from the meadows near the park. There are no suitable habitats for this species in the park. Including Orthetrum brunneum, 58 dragonfly species (78% of the national fauna and 85% of the fauna of the Lublin Region) have been found in the Poleski National Park so far. This confirms the importance of this area as a refugium of dragonflies and a hot spot of their species diversity.


New record of the ground beetle species Carabus variolosus (Fabricius, 1787)
in the Kolbuszowa Plateau (Sandomierz Basin)


Two new sites of the ground beetle species Carabus variolosus (Fabricius, 1787) were found in 2017 in the UTM grid square EA65. This species was noted in forest dominated by black alder Alnus glutinosa (Gaertn) in two primary streams flowing through the "Zabłocie'' reserve. It is the next site of this species in the Kolbuszowa Plateau, the only lowland region of the country where the species occurs.


The secret of the European bison from the Warsaw Zoological Cabinet
in the first half of the 19th century


In 1830, two European bison arrived at the Warsaw Zoological Cabinet. F.P. Jarocki, the curator of the Cabinet and the first professor of zoology at the University of Warsaw, hunted them in Białowieża Primeval Forest, with the consent of the Russian Tsar. However, in the illustration of the exhibition at the Cabinet by W. Gerson, published in 1869 in Tygodnik Ilustrowany, three bison are shown. Information about the third specimen appears for the first time in the writings of R. I. Murchison in 1845. The story of the third bison was a real mystery in the history of zoology. In order to solve it, the authors conducted a survey in both published works and archival manuscripts. As a result it was determined that the bison was most probably hunted in Białowieża Forest in 1823 for the Special School of Forestry, and was acquired by the Cabinet after the liquidation of that School in 1832. The history of the specimen is presented here in the context of the history of the natural history museum, Białowieża Primeval Forest, and the knowledge on bison biology.

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