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Dzika Odyseja
Izba Administracji Skarbowej w Białymstoku
Strona główna arrow Parki Narodowe i Rezerwaty Przyrody
PNRP 28(3) – 2009 r.

Macrofungi of the Polish Bieszczady Mountains. Part I


The Western Bieszczady Mts are one of the best-preserved natural regions in Poland. They are characterised by a great variety of habitats, thanks to a great diversity of environmental conditions: elevation above the sea level, water and soil relations, vegetation, and degree of human impact. About 80% of the Bieszczady Mts are protected within the Bieszczady National Park, Landscape Parks of the Upper San River, Cisna-Wetlina, and many nature reserves. Mycological research in this region was performed chiefly in 1958 – 1965 by Polish mycologists: S. Domański, B. Gumińska, M. Lisiewska, T. Majewski, A. Nespiak, A. Skirgiełło, W. Truszkowska, and W. Wojewoda. Other data about fungi in the Bieszczady Mts are fragmentary. In 2008, research was started within the five-year project on macrofungi of this mountain range: “Species Diversity of Fungi in the Western Bieszczady Mts”. In that year, during four field research trips, 506 species of macrofungi (446 of Basidiomycota, 60 of Ascomycota) were found. As many as 223 of them were never reported in this region before, while 17 species and varieties of Basidiomycota and 8 species of Ascomycota were not recorded before in Poland. The studied area is one of the most valuable regions of Poland because of the presence of the best-preserved natural plant communities. As a consequence, the Bieszczady Mts are refuge for many rare, endangered, and strictly protected fungal species. We found some localities of rare or threatened species of fungi included in the Red List of macrofungi in Poland (among them two species considered extinct: Scytinostroma galactinum and Tricholoma luridum), and many localities of protected species, i.e. Morchella conica, M. elata, M. esculenta, Sarcoscypha austriaca, Verpa conica, Bondarzewia mesenterica, Clavariadelphus pistillaris, Geastrum fimbriatum, Gomphus clavatus, Hericium coralloides, H. erinaceum, H. flagellum, Meripilus giganteus, Mutinus caninus, Sparassis brevipes, S. crispa, Strobilomyces strobilaceus and Tremiscus helvelloides. Taking into account literature data, the list of macrofungi recorded in the Western Bieszczady includes 929 species and varieties (813 of Basidiomycota, 116 of Ascomycota).

Macrofungi of diverse xerothermic swards
of the planned landscape reserve of Olsztyńskie Skały (Częstochowa Upland)


Mycocoenological studies were carried out in the years 1997 – 2000 and 2002 – 2003 in four associations of xerothermic swards: Festucetum pallentis, Origano – Brachypodietum, Adonido – Brachypodietum pinnati and Diantho – Armerietum elongatae situated in the area of planned reserve of Olsztyńskie Skały near Częstochowa. As a result 50 species of macromycetes were recorded on 30 permanent plots. Most of the species were recorded in the following associations: Origano – Brachypodietum and Adonido – Brachypodietun pinnati. The poorest in macrofungus species were patches of Festucetum pallentis. The poor habitat of Festucetum pallentis was colonized by xerophilous fungi from the genera of: Bovista, Lycoperdon, Geastrum and fungi producing fruit bodies on musses and grasses, such as: Arrhenia spatulata, Crinipellis scabella. In the richest plots of the Origano – Brachypodietum and Adonido – Brachypodietum pinnati associations some fungi typical of meadows and pastures were found, e.g. Camarophyllus pratensis, Marasmius oreades, Paneolus fimicola. Among the noted species 8 are included in Red List of threatened macromycetes in Poland. 3 of them are protected: Geastrum minimum, Tulostoma brumale, T. fimbriatum. The composition of macrofungi was connected with different factors of habitats of xerothermic swards. It was similar with regard to the species composition of macrofungi to analogous communities from other regions of Poland.

The role of subalpine forest glades
in the protection of biological diversity within the Gorce National Park


Mountain glades belong to seminatural biocenoses. They came into existence as a result of long-lasting shepherding. They are habitats which are characterized by an exceptional variety of plant cover. Despite the fact that they occupy a small area in the Gorce National Park, they serve as important refuge for many rare species of plants, especially high-mountain plants. Unfortunately, as a result of the present regress of grazing, an adverse transformation of plant cover is currently observed, leading to regeneration of potential vegetation. A botanical study was carried out in the years 2003 and 2006. The object of this study was vascular flora of selected subalpine forest glades. Special attention was focused on populations of 34 species recognized as the most valuable in the studied area. In the years 1997 – 1998 the places of appearance of the species were recorded within the framework of the protection plan of the Gorce National Park. We repeated the study according to the previous guidelines. The efficiency of the implemented measures of active protection was also evaluated. We found the occurrence of 300 species of vascular plants from 54 families. Among these, 28 species are protected. Mountain species also make up a numerous group found to include 54 members. It is worth to note a relatively large group of high-mountain plants that includes 17 taxons. Moreover, 19 out of 34 special care, rare and protected taxons were found there. This number has decreased in comparison with earlier years. Particularly, an adverse tendency was observed in the group of high-mountain plants. However, species characteristic of Betulo – Adenostyletea class have increased its range of occurrence.

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