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Dzika Odyseja
Izba Administracji Skarbowej w Białymstoku
Strona główna arrow Parki Narodowe i Rezerwaty Przyrody
PNRP 28(4) – 2009 r.

Macrofungi of the planned nature reserve “G±szczyk” in the Częstochowa Upland


The planned nature reserve “G±szczyk” is one of five objects of the Warta river gorge where mycological observations were made. The paper presents the results of a research conducted in 1995 – 2004.
Within the proposed reserve 223 species of fungi and slime moulds were recorded, including four that are on the list of protected species in Poland. A comparative analysis of species composition with other objects that was carried out showed that 27 species of fungi occurs only in “G±szczyk”. They are the forests where species persist in the area due to the smooth process of renewing the forest, which creates and shapes the ideal ecological conditions for fungal growth.

Information on the locality of small-leaved hellaborine Epipactis microphylla (EHRH.) SW.
in the “Lipowiec” reserve near Chrzanów (Poland)


Small-leaved hellaborine Epipactis microphylla (EHRH.) SW. occurs in dispersed localities in southern Poland, in the Upland of Cracovia-Silesia, in the Nida river depression, in the Cieszyn Foothills and in the Pieniny Mountains. It is an endangered species in Poland because of its only 7 known localities. The described stand is located in the “Lipowiec” nature reserve near Chrzanów, where the species has been reported for the first time in 1928. The field observations were conducted on two plots, each 100 m2 in size. Two phytosociological releves were done on every plot, on the first in 1983 and 2002 and on the second in 1992 and 2005. All specimens of the species have been counted on every plot during the studies to determine the fluctuation of their population. An expansion of species characteristic of broadleaved forests from the Querco – Fagetea class was observed on the first plot, which replaced species of more open plant communities from the classes of TrifolioGeranietea and RhamnoPrunetea. A total of 10 specimens of Epipactis was observed there in 1983 and only 6 in 2002. The second plot, located inside the forest characterized by a stable composition of plants characteristic of the QuercoFagetea class and did not reveal changes between 1992 and 2005, with 5 and 8 individuals of Epipactis in these two years, respectively.

Aculeata (Hymenoptera) of the “Polana Siwica” reserve
and adjacent areas in the Bolimowski Landscape Park


In the years 2006 – 2008 a research on Aculeata was conducted in the Bolimowski Landscape Park. It covered the “Polana Siwica” reserve and sand meadows near Borowiny and Chyleniec, three forest meadows – Strożyska, Bielawy and Olszówka and adjacent forest side roads. The occurrence of 211 species of Aculeata, including 174 taxons, is new in the Park. There are six species new in the ŁódĽ region, which include Crabro ingricus and 5 other species of bees. The number of the park’s currently known species has risen, according to literature, up to 246 being 23.4% of Aculeata’s national fauna. There were 158 taxons of Aculeata found in the reserve being 15% of the national fauna of this insect group. The current, overall number of bee species known in the ŁódĽ region has risen to a total of 291 being 61.4% of the Apiformes fauna. There were 31 endangered species confirmed on the basis the collected data (14.7% of taxons total number). The share of endangered species in the reserve equals 12% (19 taxons). The Aculeata group contains 25 species that are very rare in general and rare in the country, ex. Scolia hirta, Euodynerus dantici, Mimumesa beaumonti, Tachysphex fulvitarsis, Andrena mitis, A. synadelpha, A. suerinensis and Nomada sheppardana. Sixteen species belonging to this group were find in the Reserve. Another 10 protected taxons were also confirmed to live in the Reserve (among them 9 belong to bees). It is obvious that the “Polana Siwica” reserve and adjacent areas is an important habitat of Aculeata in the Bolimowski Landscape Park.

The state of knowledge on the bees (Hymenoptera, Apoidea, Apiformes)
of the Wzniesienia Łódzkie Landscape Park


The work is a conclusion of the state of knowledge on bees Apiformes in the Wzniesienia Łódzkie Landscape Park. A list of 186 species (39.2% of national fauna of Apiformes) that was based on published and unpublished data was displayed. Amongst these species, 89 taxons are new in the Park. Six species, Hylaeus annulatus, Andrena lathyri, Evylaeus parvulus, Coelioxys alata, Nomada furva and N. mutabilis, are new in the ŁódĽ region. The number of known species in this region increased to 297 (62.6% of the national fauna of Apiformes). The occurrence of 16 endangered species (8.6% of whole group of bees) was confirmed in the area of the Park. Twenty two taxons are rare and very rare in the country and 17 of them are under legal protection. However, 12 species that were confirmed earlier in Wzniesienia Łódzkie Landscape Park, were not found this time. The possible cause of the lack of species such as ex. Colletes succinctus, Andrena fuscipes and its parasite Nomada rufipes, is the progressing disappearance of heather in this area. The number of known species of Aculeata in the Park totals to 397 (37.8% of national fauna of Aculeata). The results of the research lead to a conclusion that Wzniesienia Łódzkie Landscape Park is a valuable mainstay of bees in central Poland.

Wintering of waterfowl in Załęczański Landscape Park in 1988 – 2009


The number of waterfowl species wintering along the Warta River in the Załęczański Landscape Park was recorded in 1988 – 2009. The Warta River, where counts were carried out, was divided into 5-km long sectors. The total length of the investigated river was 40 km. Counts were conducted once a year in the 2nd or 3rd week of Jaunary. 19 waterfowl species were recorded during 1988 – 2004: the Mute Swan Cygnus olor, the Whooper Swan C. cygnus, the Bean Goose Anser fabalis, the Mallard Anas platyrhynchos, the Teal A. crecca, the Tufted Duck Aythya fuligula, the Common Goldeneye Bucephala clangula, the Merganser Mergus merganser, the Smew M. albellus, the Little Grebe Tachybaptus ruficollis, the Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo, the Grey Heron Ardea cinerea, the Great Egret Egretta alba, the Moorhen Gallinula chloropus, the Coot Fulica atra, the Green Sandpiper Tringa ochropus, the Kingfisher Alcedo atthis and the Dipper Cinclus cinclus. The total number of species observed each year varied between 4 and 13. The most abundant birds observed in the Park were: the Mallard (its share in the total number of wintering waterfowl was usually larger than 80%), the Mute Swan and the Goosander. The species that were recorded every year are: the Mallard, the Mute Swan and the Goosander (except 1994). Although the Mallard was the most numerous wintering species every year, its share on the Warta River decreased significantly during the 22 years of the study. On the other hand, the share of ichthyophages like the Merganser, the Little Grebe, the Grey Heron and the Kingfisher increased over this time. It was found that benthophages like diving ducks and coots were recorded very rarely on the Warta River in the Załęczański Landscape Park.

High density of the Nightjar Caprimulgus europaeus L. 1758
territories on the Niepust heath land in the Kampinoski National Park


A research on the Nightjar Caprimulgus europaeus densities was conducted in 2008 in the eastern part of Kampinoski National Park, on the Niepust heath land. The research site covered an area of 40 ha. The total number of birds on the Niepust heath land is estimated at 9 – 11 pairs which gives 2.3 – 2.8 pairs/10 ha. It is the highest density of the nightjar in the country, similar to local densities in England. The birds preferred areas of the heath land covered by single trees and patches of pines, birches and aspens. They avoided completely open areas which graduate into uncovered dunes. They were also not noted in the surrounding mixed coniferous forest on dunes. The heath land neighbored with two wet meadows of a total area of 50 ha, which probably provide the Nightjars with sufficient prey, at such high densities. In the study the researched habitat was compared to others described in literature. On its basis it was determined that the high density of nightjars on the Niepust heath land may be the result of the accumulation of several habitats preferred by this species (heath land, open dunes, few year old deciduous and coniferous trees, neighborhood of meadows) on a small area.

Owls Strigiformes of the Ojców National Park and its buffer zone


The research was conducted in the years 2007 and 2008 in the area of the Ojców National Park (ONP) and its buffer zone (S Poland). The total research area covered 89.3 km2, out of which about 80% were open areas and about 20% were forests (Fig. 1). During the study 27 occupied breeding territories of 4 species of owls Strigiformes were surveyed: the Barn Owl Tyto alba, the Tawny Owl Strix aluco, the Little Owl Athene noctua and the Long-eared Owl Asio otus, which gave a total density of 3.0 territories per 10 km2 (t/10 km2) (Tab. 1).
In the research area 2 occupied breeding territories (and 6 abandoned sites) of the Barn Owl were found, which gave a density of 0.2 t/10 km2 (Tab. 1). The distribution of its occupied breeding territories and abandoned sites was uneven, the majority of them were located in the northern part of the research area (Fig. 2 A). Both pairs of the Barn Owl had 5 young in total, which gave 2.5 young per a successful pair (y/s. p.) (Tab. 2). The predominating owl species of the ONP and its buffer zone was the Tawny Owl which reached a number of 22 breeding territories and a density of 2.5 t/10 km2 of the total area and 12.2 t/10 km2 of the forest area (Tab. 1). The distribution of its territories was relatively even throughout the entire forest area, although no territories were found in the central-western part of the ONP (Fig. 2 B). Out of 22 pairs of birds as many as 20 had young, 50 young were counted in total, which gave 2.5 y/s. p. (Tab. 2, Fig. 3). Only 1 breeding territory of the Little Owl was recorded (Fig. 4 A), what gave a density of 0.1 t/10 km2 (Tab. 1). During the breeding season in 2008 the pair of birds had 2 young (Tab. 2). In the research area only 2 occupied breeding territories of the Long-eared Owl were recorded (Fig. 4 B), and their density amounted to 0.2 t/10 km2 (Tab. 1). Both pairs of birds had 4 young, what gave 4.0 y/s. p. (Tab. 2). During the research in the study area the Ural Owl Strix uralensis was not noted, what is surprising because the population of this species is currently in territorial and numerical expansion in the north west.
The obtained results show that the ONP together with its buffer zone create attractive breeding places for common owls species, such as for example the Tawny Owl.

Geobotanic characteristics of the corncrake Crex crex L.
biotopes in the western part of the Kampinoski National Park


Scientific research on biotope selectivity of the corncrake Crex crex, including preferences with regard to types of plant communities, moisture and plant-cover density, was done in the western part of the Kampinoski National Park since mid-May until mid-July 2001 at the time when corncrakes have their 1st and 2nd broods. Phytosociological relevés were taken in the sites where voice-active corncrake males had been detected. As a result of the research, voice-active corncrake males were found in the phytocoenoses of 17 none-forest communities (14 associations and 3 plant communities of an undefined syntaxonomic rank). The most communities represented the Phragmitetea class, at the same time most of the birds were discovered in the phytocoenoses of different sedge communities – the most in the Caricetum gracilis association. The birds clearly preferred sedge communities – they chose them far more frequently than could be expected taking into account the size of the area covered by these communities. In the second half of the brood wet meadows were chosen less often than ruderal communities. It probably results from the fact that part of wet meadows is still mown, usually at the end of June, when corncrakes begin their 2nd brood. The choice of phytocoenoses was not affected by moisture. The main criterion in the choice of phytocoenoses seems to be the density of the plant-cover in the layer up to 30 cm and remarkably higher in the layer of height above 60 cm. It enables corncrakes to move about with more ease and gives them shelter. This kind of spatial structure exists in sedge communities, which explains why it is the phytocoenoses of these communities that is chosen the most frequently.

The ways to capture marmots in the Tatras


The marmot Marmota m. latirostris (KRATOCHVIL, 1961) is one of the rarest species living in Poland and Slovakia. The estimated size of the whole Tatra marmot population is around 1000. In the past, marmots were considered by the residents of the Podtatrze region to be very useful. The main reason why they were so desired was their fat, used in the folk medicine as a heal-all. Excessive hunting resulted in the near extinction of the animal. Yet, an extreme outcome was prevented by strong protective measures taken in the mid-nineteenth century – measures that continued to be enforced until present times.
In the past, there were many kinds of ways to capture marmots, some of which are still used by hunters. One of the most effective methods was hunting with firearms, used in the Tatras already in the seventeen and eighteen centuries. Primitive methods included digging up marmots from the burrows, usually during their period of hibernation. This was done by starting a fire outside their holes and blowing the resulting smoke into them. A truly barbarous method included deploying drills, though this was not accepted by the real marmot hunters. Another tool for capturing marmots were iron traps used until nowadays. Finally, hunting marmots with snares or hunting with dogs are methods rarely used in present times.
Besides the different ways of capturing marmots in the Tatras, it is also worth to mention a possible combination of these methods. Many other tactics might have been used, depending on the hunters’ imagination. The victim, in this case the marmot, before being captured by its natural predator, runs a variety of defensive behaviors; when attacked with no chance to escape, it usually takes on the uneven struggle. Nevertheless, when up against most of the hunting methods, the ability of marmots to save their own lives is greatly limited.

An evaluation of the influence of ungulates on natural regeneration
in Carpathian beech forests of the Tatra National Park


Measurements taken in Grze¶kówki (Str±żyska Valley) in the Tatra National Park are part of a larger project focused on the structure and dynamics of Carpathian beech forests. The forests of the Tatra Mountains were strongly altered by human activity in the past, but since the establishment of a national park 55 years ago the natural processes are taking over. Unfortunately, the excessive development of the town of Zakopane, located at the foothills of the Tatra Mountains, prevents the winter migration of ungulates to the lower elevations. Deer staying in the mountains during winter cause a lot of damage to natural regeneration. Because of that, regeneration of some species, which had been strongly reduced by former forest management, is very difficult. The saplings of silver fir, rowan, ash, and sycamore are most heavily browsed by deer. Beech, similarly to Norway spruce, is in a better situation, because it is avoided by deer. Field observations showed that the species composition of natural regeneration in the Carpathian beech forest is similar to the species composition of a mature tree stand. It is expected that Regle Zakopiańskie will be dominated by almost pure beech forests in the near future.


A new vascular plant species leathery moonwort Botrychium multifidium (L.) (Ophioglossaceae)
in the Białowieża National Park (NE Poland)


A new species of leathery moonwort Botrychium multifidium (L.) (Ophioglossaceae) in the Białowieża National Park (NE Poland). Botrychium multifidium is a rare and endangered vascular plant in Poland. A new locality of the species was found in 2007 in NE Białowieża Forest, in the vicinity of the village of Zamosze, in the Narewka commune.

A new locality of bog orchid Malaxis monophyllos L. SW.
in the buffer zone of the “Lipowiec” nature reserve near Chrzanów


A new locality of bog orchid Malaxis monophylos in the buffer zone of the Lipowiec Nature Reserve near Chrzanów (the ¶l±skie voivodship) is described. A permanent plot of 25 m2 was formed in 2001 at the location of the species, where their individuals were counted and phytosociological releves were performed according the Braun-Blanquet method every year during the period of 2001 – 2006. The soil was characterized by assessing its pH and the contens of carbon, niotrogen and ashes. The most common companion species include, without limitation, Fragaria vesca, Brachypodium sylvaticum and Galium verum. A decrease of the Malaxis monophylos population has been observed, from 17 individuals in 2001, to 10 in 2004 and 6 in 2005. It results probably form forest clearances in a part of surrounding area. This locality is the interesting example of active nature protection.

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