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PNRP 40(2)


The vegetation of the Lipowska Nature Reserve
in the Beskids Żywiecki Mountains
and the role of this vegetation in the protection of nature


The Lipowska Nature Reserve is the youngest reserve created in the Żywiec Beskids. It covers the peak flattening and the north-west and south-east slopes of the Lipowski Wierch and Rysianka massifs. The main reason for the establishment of this nature reserve was the protection of the subalpine spruce forest and peat bogs with a system of ponds, and the abundance of flora and fauna occurring there. As a result of the field research conducted in the growing season in 2019, 15 plant communities were found, including 2 forest communities and 13 non-forest communities. A large number of plants and communities under national protection, and of significant importance for the Community, have also been identified. In the studied area, 18 species under partial protection and one species, Polystichum aculeatum, which is under strict protection, were found. The described area has floral diversity resulting from the topography, climatic conditions and altitude. The Lipowska Nature Reserve has a high natural value. The vegetation of the Lipowska reserve has a natural value, which makes the reserve important for the protection of nature in Europe.


Soil diversity in forest research plots
in the Tatra National Park (Western Tatras)


A soil survey was performed on forest research plots in the Tatra National Park in the Western Tatra area using a regular 500 x 500 m grid. As a result, a large diversity of soils determining growing conditions for plants was observed. Soils belonging to the order of brown earths and podzolic soils were the most numerous (169 and 103, respectively), while soils belonging to the order of black soils and weakly developed soils were more rare (72 and 47, respectively). Finally, 26 soils belonging to the order of organic soils and 15 soils belonging to the order of gleyzemic soils were identified in the studied area. Information obtained in the present study often differed from other available spatial data. The investigated soils were divided into two groups due to the chemical properties of the parent material (carbonates and non-carbonates). However, they also had some common features resulting from the effects of high-mountain geomorphology and climate- and vegetation-related factors, which were manifested especially in terms of a high content of organic matter (including poorly decomposed organic particulate matter), shallow profiles with a high content of rock fragments and a predictable tendency to undergo acidification. The diversity of the studied soils was assessed by using the current Soil Classification of Poland (2019), as it provides the designation of units that correspond well to a unique, high-mountain pedogenesis (including umbrisols and folisols).


Herpetofauna of the Sulejowski Landscape Park


The observations were carried out in 2019-2020 in the area of the Sulejowski Landscape Park. The Sulejowski Lanscape Park was established in the south-eastern part of the Łódź Province to protect the southern part of the Piotrków Plain, Pilica Valley and Sulejów Lake. It covers an area of 17,440 ha and holds 7 nature reserves: Błogie (70 ha), Gaik (33 ha), Las Jabłoniowy (19 ha), Lubiaszów (203 ha), Meszcze (2 ha), Twarda (23 ha) and Jaksonek (27 ha). The area of the Sulejowski Lanscape Park covers forest communities, meadows, agricultural lands, watercourses and ponds.
Amphibians and reptiles were found in different biotopes, including forests, meadows, rushes and ponds. The research included an inventory of herpetofauna and the identification of threats, along with determining the necessary protection measures. As a result, 13 species of amphibians and 5 species of reptiles were found in 18 research localities. The following species were found: smooth newt Lissotriton vulgaris L., great crested newt Triturus cristatus Laur., Bombina bombina L., common spadefoot toad Pelobates fuscus Laur., common toad Bufo bufo L., natterjack toad Epidalea calamita Laur., European green toad Bufotes viridis Laur., European tree frog Hyla arborea L., edible frog Pelophylax esculentus L., pool frog Pelophylax lessonae Cam., marsh frog Pelophylax ridibundus Pall., moor frog Rana arvalis Nilss., common frog Rana temporaria L., sand lizard Lacerta agilis L., viviparous lizard Zootoca vivipara Jacquin, slow worm Anguis fragilis L., grass snake Natrix natrix L., and common European adder Vipera berus L. (Fig. 1 and 2, Tab. 1).
The main threats to amphibians and reptiles in this area include the drying out of water bodies, water pollution, eutrophication, spring grass burning, tourism and road communication.



Notes on the distribution of Swiss willow (Salix helvetica Vill.)
in the Tatra National Park


Salix helvetica is a rare and endangered species of alpine shrub, limited in Poland only to the Tatra Mountains (Kaźmierczkowa et al. 2016). Hitherto, it was described only from four localities in the Polish Tatra National Park (TNP). Recent studies confirmed most of its historical localities. Furthermore, we found three new places of occurrence of Swiss willow in the TNP. The current population of this species reaches 43 patches of shrubs, distributed on six localities and covering ca. 400 m2. Salix helvetica grows in the Tatra Mountains on siliceous habitats, representing alpine and subalpine acidophilous swards, tall-grass vegetation and dwarf scrubs of Vaccinium myrtillus.




On the 125th anniversary
of the birth of Prof. Dr hab. Jan Jerzy Karpinski (1896-1965)


Białowieża Primeval Forest and European bison
in “Przegląd Myśliwski i Łowiectwo Polskie”


The hunting magazine “Przegląd Myśliwski i Łowiectwo Polskie” was published for four years (1923-1926). Its founder and editor-in-chief was a writer, historian and hunting activist Julian Ejsmond. The journal was connected with Poznań’s hunting society, which, at that time, was conflicted with hunting organizations in Warsaw. Białowieża Primeval Forest, the restitution of European bison and nature protection problems were often taken up by authors of “Przegląd”. This paper is an attempt at analysing these topics in the historical context. The polemic connected with the beginning of the Białowieża National Park, the reintroduction of European bison in Białowieża and the role of Poznań zoo and hunting societies in this initiative along with articles concerning the history of the Forest were discussed. The analysis allowed to uncover several unknown facts concerning nature protection in the 1920s.


Kampinos Forest between 1914-1938


For thousands of years the human activity has impacted the surrounding natural world in a different way. This influence was especially visible in the 20th century, as well as in Kampinos Forest. The events between 1914 and 1938 had a significant impact on the state of the nature in that region. Probably one of the greatest devastations of Kampinos Forest took place in that period, caused by excessive wood acquisition conducted by the occupant during World War I. Also, the construction of a narrow-gauge railway, enabling wood transport to the outskirts of forest areas, contributed to the dynamic deforestation of the area.
After 1918 there was an attempt to minimize the losses in nature by introducing appropriate activities (forestation) and laws connected with forest management and forest protection. At that time efforts were also made to ensure organized deliveries of wood to society and industry, and the necessary wood grades were prepared by local sawmills. Kampinos Forest was becoming a frequent tourist trip destination. At that time the first nature reserves were also created, which could have contributed to the constitution of the Kampinos National Park in 1959. Because of its geographical location, the Forest was also in the scope of interest of the Polish Armed Forces, which, among other things, led to the building of the Main Armament Depot No. 1 (Główna Składnica Uzbrojenia nr 1).
In view of the significant degree of Kampinos Forest devastation, the direction of activities conducted in the Second Polish Republic was appropriate, however, because of the events of World War II, they were too short to reinstate an appropriate and stable structure in the Kampinos Forest ecosystems.

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