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Projekt PL BY
Dzika Odyseja
Izba Administracji Skarbowej w Białymstoku
Strona główna arrow Parki Narodowe i Rezerwaty Przyrody
PNRP 29(1) – 2010 r.

Macrofungi in selected reserves of Białowieża Forest


Results of mycological field studies in selected reserves of Białowieża Forest performed in 1999 – 2001 are presented. During 6 several-days-long field tours 90 mycological lists were made in phytocenoses of 6 forests associations distributed in 11 reserves and in the nature tour “Żebra Żubra”. In total, 381 species of macrofungi where recorded, including 6 strictly protected, 66 threatened (in it: 9 endangered [E], 25 threatened [V], 29 rare [R] and 3 indeterminate [I]). The knowledge on mycobiota of Białowieża Forest is still incomplete and therefore thorough studies are needed for the complete recognition of the species diversity of macroscopic fungi occurring in that valuable forest complex.

Scarlet elfcup Sarcoscypha austriaca (O. BECK ex SACC.) BOUD.
in Poland – new localities and a new substratum


Species belonging to the genus Sarcoscypha are under strict legal protection in Poland. The current distribution of scarlet elfcup Sarcoscypha austriaca (O. BECK ex SACC.) BOUD. in Poland is presented on the basis of literature data and its 12 new localities. Nearly half out of 76 localities have been found in protected areas of various statuses. A significant number of localities occur in anthropogenic habitats (a cemetery, gravel pit, old military guard-house, parks, mid-field woodlots, a secondary forest on fallow field, urban riverside shrubbery). S. austriaca has been so far found on the wood of grey alder Alnus incana, boxelder Acer negundo, locust tree Robinia pseudoacacia, birch Betula sp. and willow Salix sp. The authors found ascocarps of S. austriaca growing on a substratum not listed in Poland yet, i.e. pedunculate oak Quercus robur, on two stands. S. austriaca have been fund in Poland predominantly in April (35 records) and in March (15 records). Fiverecords were taken in February and May respectively, and one in each of the following months: November, December and January. It is suggested not to include S. austriaca in the new edition of Polish red list of fungi.

State of lichens biota of Studziany Las
in Wigry National Park (nort-heastern Poland)


The paper contains a list of lichens in the Studziany Las in Wigry National Park. Lichens occur on the bark of all tree and shrub species, wood, wooden constructions and soil. Their taxonomic diversity is high. As a result of field studies carried out in 1994, 1999 and 2005, 91 lichen species have been found, representing 37 genera. The richest in species are the following genera: Cladonia (20 species), Lecanora (8) and Physcia, Pertusaria (5). Lichens represent all the morphological forms. Crustose lichens are predominant (36%). Lichens with fruticose and foliose thalli are less common and their share amounts 34% and 29%. Placodiose and squamulose thalli are represented by only 1 – 2 species each.
Among the 91 lichen species, 6 taxa are on the regional list of threatened lichens and allied fungi (CIEŚLIŃSKI 2003 b): Chaenotheca phaeocephala and Stereocaulon tomentosum (EN), Chaenotheca furfuracea, Lecanora subrugosa, Melanelixia subaurifera and Pyrenula nitidella (VU).
On the Red List of extinct and threatened lichens in Poland (CIEŚLIŃSKI et al. 2006) are 25 taxa: 8 in the endangered category – EN, 9 in the vulnerable category – VU, 7 in the near threatened category – NT and 1 in the least concern category – LC. Out of all the 91 lichen species of Studziany Las, 25 have been put under legal protection, 20 of which are protected totally and 5 of which are protected partially.

The dynamics of forest-making processes
of the multispecies beech stands and multispecies fir stands
in optimal and terminal phases in Ranges Grele
and Obrocz in Roztoczański National Park


The aim of this paper was to assess the present state of the woods and the dynamics of forest-making processes measured by the size of growing and declining of the trees and the increment of the volume of woods in Range Grele and Range Obrocz in Roztoczański National Park.
Control measurements were taken in 2006, in accordance with the principles of statistic-mathematical system of inventory and controlling the forest, on 183 circular control sample plots in multispecies beech and fir woods. As a result of the research, it was established that the chosen woods are characterized by a large mean volume (over 400 m3·ha-1) and a considerable annual volume increment (over 8 m3·ha-1·year-1). The process of growing, described by the number of trees, overweighs the declining process. In terms of the volume, the process of declining is more rapid than the process of growing. As a result of the processes occurring in the woods, both the species composition and the growth of the mean volume and the number of trees changed. On the basis of the changes observed in the species composition, resulting from the decay of aged and thick firs and the lush growth and development of deciduous species that have optimal conditions for renewal on this site, especially beech and hornbeam, it can be foreseen that in the future beech will be highly dominant.

Materials to knowledge of carabid fauna (Coleoptera: Carabidae)
of Bolimów Landscape Park


Field investigations and literature data allowed to find 102 species of Carabidae in the Bolimów Landscape Park (Central Poland). Studies were conducted mainly in nature reserves. In total, 78 carabid species have been noted in the “Rawka” NR, 36 in the planned reserve of “Dolina Grabinki”, 32 in the “Puszcza Mariańska” NR, 28 in the “Kopanicha” NR, 23 in the “Ruda-Chlebacz” NR, and only 18 in the “Polana Siwica” NR. Almost 50 species were noted in the area of landscape park for the first time. Four species are on the “Red List of Threatened Animals of Poland”, including: Carabus convexus, Odacantha melanura in the nearly threatened category (NT), in the vulnerable category (VU) – Omophron limbatum, and in the data deficient category (DD) – Broscus cephalotes. Twelve species legally protected by the Polish law have been recorded in the park, including 10 Carabus L. species and 2 Calosoma WEB.
Presently, the Bolimów Landscape Park seems to be one the richest in the Carabidae species among the landscape parks of Central Poland. Moreover, the “Rawka” Nature Reserve, with the total number of 78 recorded ground beetle species, has one of the highest Carabidae species richness among the all Polish nature reserves.

British national parks – selected aspects of nature conservation management


Results of the conducted questionnaire may serve as a basis for preparing an outline of the way the British national parks (NPs) implement nature conservation activities.
All the parks either already had a bounding management plan in place or were in the process of working it out. NP Authorities are two-tier – they consist of supervising bodies creating their long-term policies and making the most important decisions, as well as of staff. The staff had 124 full posts on average and the predominant field of education among their employees was town and country planning. This results from the fact that the NPs took over the spatial planning role within their territories from local authorities.
On average, 72% of the NPs’ income came from the central budget. Three parks also received some funding from local authorities. Nearly half of the expenditures was to cover the administration costs while only 13.5% was spent on nature conservation.
There were no Natura 2000 Special Protected Areas within two NPs and their number varied from 1 to 14 within the remaining parks, covering approximately 21.8% of their territories. The number of proposed or designated Special Areas of Conservation varied from 2 to 21 and they covered approximately 25.4% of the NPs’ territories. It is either nature conservation agencies alone or the agencies together with National Parks that are responsible for maintaining the habitats’ and species’ favourable status within parks. The inhabitants’ knowledge about various forms of protection is obviously much greater on traditional forms (especially national parks) than within the Natura 2000 network.
In terms of threats posed to natural assets, land use changes were assessed as the biggest threat – mainly under- and over-grazing, but also the results of the EU Common Agricultural Policy.
Other threats included air, water and soil pollution as well as excessive tourism and problems related to it. It is worth emphasizing that uncontrolled, chaotic development of building grounds was assessed as a minor threat. Climate changes, on the other hand, were expected to become a very dangerous phenomenon in near future.
In general, the NPs agree that the lack of sufficient financial and human resources are a significant obstacle to the effective management of the parks’ territories.
Volunteers engage in many different activities within all the parks. Also, in all the NPs there were sites that have been purchased for the purpose of protecting them and/or subjecting them to the management of ecological NGOs and state conservation bodies, e.g. state agencies.


New localities and new hosts of Phleogena faginea (FR.) LINK in Poland


Phleogena faginea, a species considered endangered in Poland, has been rarely recorded in our country so far. Here, we present seven new localities of the species, which increases the number of known Polish localities to 85. In the Pieniński National Park, P. faginea was reported on Abies alba and in the Białowieski National Park it was found on Salix caprea, which are hosts that have not been mentioned in the literature so far. At present, P. faginea is known on 16 species of deciduous trees, two coniferous species, and two species of fungi in Poland.

The occurrence of Lathyrus linifolius (REICHARD) BÄSSLER (Fabaceae)
in Central Poland


Lathyrus linifolius (REICHARD) BÄSSLER (known as Orobus linifolius REICHARD or Lathyrus montanus BERNH.) is a native of Europe. Lathyrus linifolius is found in woods and thickets. Optimum occurrence it has in Galio odoratiFagetum and FagoQuercetum petraeae associations.
In Poland, L. linifolius occurs mainly in the West and North. This species have only several localities in central Poland. In June 2009, the author found a new locality of this species in the central part of Złoczowska Upland, in the Wróblew municipality. Lathyrus linifolius grow in pine forest.
The population of this species consisted of a dozen individuals on area ca 1000 m2.

Materials to the knowledge of selected Macromoths (Lepidoptera)
of Kampinos National Park


Until the present moment 275 species of Macromoths (Lepidoptera) from eleven families: Endromididae, Sphingidae, Drepanidae, Geometridae, Lasiocampidae, Arctiidae, Lymantriidae, Noctuidae, Nolidae, Notodontidae and Pantheidae, have been known to exist in the area of Kampinos National Park. This list was created on the basis of both literature data and new observations conducted in the years 2008 – 2009 mainly in the eastern part of the park. Among the noted species special attention should be given to taxa rarely noted in Poland. One of the most valuable ones is Spatalia argentina (DEN. et SCHIFF.). This species is listed on the Red List of Threatened Animals in Poland under the category Vulnerable (BUSZKO, NOWACKI 2002). During the study 8 species new for the Mazovian region were found.

State of knowledge concerning the ichthyofauna of Kampinos National Park


Surface waters cover 0.40% of Kampinos National Park’s area. Until now no species of lamprey Petromyzontiformes have been noted here. Fishes is the only vertebrate group that has not been studied in the KNP. The existing information is fragmentary. Field studies of 2008 – 2009 revealed the presence of 27 species, including 3 occuring only in fish ponds (unidentified species of sturgeon Acipenser sp., silver carp Hypophtalmichthys molitrix and wels catfish Silurus glanis were ascertained). Cyprinidae constitute 59% of the ichthyofauna, whereas the remaining 9 families are represented by 1 – 2 species each. Alien species (26%) are: unidentified species of sturgeon, Prussian carp Carassius auratus gibelio, goldfish C. a. auratus, common carp Cyprinus carpio, grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella, silver carp, brown bullhead Ameiurus nebulosus and Chineese sleeper Perccottus glenii. The most valuable species (listed in Annex II of the EU Habitats Directive) are: bitterling Rhodeus sericeus, weatherfish Misgurnus fossilis and spined loach Cobitis taenia. Due to the frequent occurrence of diploid-polyploid complexes of the spined loach (in Poland the spined loach and Cobitis elongatoides are the most common), it is possible that the recorded spined loach is not a “pure species’’. The most interesting and diverse fish habitat in the KNP is the Łasica Channel, especially its western fragment.

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