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PNRP 41(4)


The impact of conservation methods on the structural diversity
of forests in Biebrza National Park


The aim of the research was to assess the structural diversity of the Biebrza National Park stands. The research material consisted of 30 stands selected in 15 pairs characterized by similar conditions (forest habitat type, age, species composition of the stand) and differing in the intensity of human interference (absent or present traces of activity). Three layers of the stand were examined: the tree layer, the regeneration layer and the undergrowth layer. The features of the stand were described using the modified Margalef, Shannon-Wiener and Simpson indices. The resources of dead wood were also investigated. The indicators used in the research showed no differences between the stands subject to protective activity and the stands where activities were abandoned in terms of species diversity, domination and features of dead wood. The differences between the species diversity of the tree layer and the regeneration layer indicate a trend of decline in species diversity of stands along with an increase in the fertility of the habitat. The spatial differentiation of the tree layer and the regeneration was small. An area of up to 600 m2 was sufficient to describe the diversity of these layers. An area of over 900 m2 was required to describe the species diversity of the undergrowth layer.


The influence of the honey bee Apis mellifera on other groups of pollinators
in Wigry National Park’s forests


Research on the influence of the honey bee Apis mellifera, temporarily introduced into the forest environment, showed that even an apiary of 25 bee colonies, in the conditions of fresh mixed coniferous forest on the area of Wigry National Park, has no significant undesirable influence on forest pollinating insects. After the introduction of 5-25 honey bee colonies, the forest environment is still mainly influenced by the local insects’ fauna. Regardless of the distance of the test site from the hives, no significant competition was found between the honey bee and other pollinating insects, at least in the case of herbaceous plants’ flowers and low shrubs. Low honey bee densities, and thus a negligible impact on forest pollinators at sites near the apiary, may result from the occurrence of alternative food sources, more attractive for bees - honeydew in the treetops.
Although the results of the conducted research do not indicate a significant, undesirable influence of honey bees temporarily introduced into the forest on forest pollinators, in the light of the previous researches’ results, the precautionary principle should be applied, the introduction of bred bees into the forest should be limited, and in the case of protected areas (national parks, nature reserves) or known positions of rare and endangered insects, a total ban on beekeeping in these areas should be introduced.


Material on the knowledge
of wild bees (Hymenoptera, Aculeata, Apiformes)
of the “Nadgopla雟ki Park Tysi帷lecia” Landscape Park
in Kujawsko-Pomorskie province


Based on fragmentary data from the literature and unpublished materials, the present state of knowledge of the bees of the ‘‘Nadgopla雟ki Park Tysi帷lecia’’ Landscape Park in Kujawsko-Pomorskie province is presented. In total, 232 species of bees were found, accounting for 47.5% of the national fauna of this insect group. In the analysed bee community, 46 species (19.8%) belong to endangered, very rare and rare taxa in Poland. Highly endangered species include: Sphecodes marginatus (EX), Hylaeus punctatus (VU, rm), Andrena alfkenella (VU, rm), A. falsifica (VU, rm), A. fulvida (VU, rm), A. mitis (VU), A. nasuta (VU, rm), A. nycthemera (VU, rm), A. potentillae (VU, rm), A. suerinensis (VU, rm), Hoplitis papaveris (VU, rm), Osmia bidentata (VU, rm), Anthophora pubescens (VU, rm), and Nomada opaca (VU, rm).


Mammal fauna of Zakole Wawerskie in Warsaw


Studies of mammals were conducted in the area of Zakole Wawerskie, a former floodplain of the Vistula River in Warsaw. For almost 40 years efforts have been made to establish a nature reserve to protect this area. Previous studies on various elements of animate and inanimate nature showed that the Zakole Wawerskie was one of the most valuable nature areas in Warsaw. In this study pellets of owls and birds of prey were analysed to record small mammals. Moreover, direct observations and snow tracking were conducted. Also, literature data and personal data were reviewed and collected. This study proved that there were at least 30 mammal species recorded, including numerous species protected by national and/or international law. Zakole Wawerskie is one of a very few places in Warsaw, where the field vole or the water shrew were recorded. Also, the harvest mouse was very numerous here. The Eurasian beaver and the otter were present here, both protected under the EU Habitat Directive. Our survey showed that this area is one of the richest in mammal species in the city. Thus, owing to its nature and landscape wealth, should be protected as a nature reserve.


About Prof Dr August Dehnel (1903-1962)
on the 60th anniversary of his death


November 2022 marked the 60th anniversary of the death of Prof Dr August Dehnel, an outstanding Polish zoologist, theriologist, and nature conservation activist who was associated with Bia這wie瘸 for the last years of his life. A. Dehnel was born in 1903 in Warsaw, to an educated family. He completed his studies in natural sciences at the University of Warsaw, obtaining the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in 1926. Until 1935, he worked at the Department of Comparative Anatomy and Embryology of his alma mater, and then (from 1936 to 1939) at the Head Office of State Forests, dealing with nature protection. During the occupation he was imprisoned in a prisoner of war camp. From 1945 to 1947 he worked at the State Zoological Museum. He received his habilitation in 1949. In 1947 he joined the Marie Curie-Sk這dowska University in Lublin; he was the head of the Department of Comparative Anatomy of Vertebrates, deputy professor and professor. Since 1952 he was the organizer and first head of the Mammal Research Institute PAS in Bialowieza. He studied small mammals of the Bia這wie瘸 Forest. He detected and described the phenomenon of seasonal variation in shrew skull, known in the literature as ‘‘Dehnel's phenomenon’’. He initiated the modern direction of theriological research in Poland. In the last period he was dealing with crossing of European bison with domestic cattle. He was a member of State Council for Nature Conservation and a member of many national and international scientific societies and social associations. In the years 1957-1962 he chaired the first Scientific Council of the Bia這wie瘸 National Park. He founded and edited the scientific journal ‘‘Acta Theriologica’’. He left scientific achievements in the form of 40 publications. He died in 1962 in Warsaw and was buried at the Pow您ki cemetery.

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