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Dzika Odyseja
Izba Administracji Skarbowej w Białymstoku
Strona główna arrow Parki Narodowe i Rezerwaty Przyrody
PNRP 29(2) – 2010 r.

Checklist of lichens (Ascomycota lichenisati) of Białowieża Primeval Forest (NE Poland)


The work contains a checklist of lichens which have been noted in Białowieża Forest since the beginning of lichenological investigations (the end of the 19th century) up to now. 450 species have been found, including taxons of a smaller rank. Among them, 49 species come from historical data and were mentioned in articles up to 1988, i.e., in a monographic description of the lichens biota in the Białowieża Forest (CIEŚLIŃSKI, TOBOLEWSKI 1988). The occurrence of the next 29 species within the Forest area was found doubtful or incorrectly identified. The species whose occurrence was confirmed within the Białowieża National Park were bolded in the list (268 species, including 245 present data). The list does not include species from CIEŚLIŃSKI, TOBOLEWSKI (1988), which were found on the stand from the Białowieża Forest complex. More than half a of the lichen species (52%) is noted on the red list of engendered lichens in Poland.

Lichens of the “Osiedle Kormoranów” reserve in Krajeńskie Lake District (north-western Poland)


Nature reserve “Osiedle Kormoranów” is situated near the village of Pakotulsko in the mesoregion of Krajeńskie Lake District. The reserve was established in 1956 to protect a black cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo colony, for a long time the biggest in Poland. Since 1983 the reserve protects only the landscape and ancient beech trees. As a result of the research carried out in 2009, 58 species of lichens and one lichenising fungus were found. The dominant ecological group are epiphytes (22 species). 22 species are on the Red List of lichens threatened with extinction in Poland (CIEŚLIŃSKI et al. 2006). One species is under partial, whereas 13 are under total protection according to the Polish law (Order of the Minister of Environment of 9 July 2004, on protection of wild fungi species).

Contribution to the bryoflora of Central Poland.
Mosses and liverworts of the Łaznów forest reserve.


This paper presents the results of a research conducted in the Łaznów reserve in 2006 and 2007. This area protects forest communities with the silver fir-tree (Abies alba) in the tree-stand, on the northern border of the silver fir range reaches up into Central Poland. Two forest associations and two forest communities are distinguished in this area. These are: TilioCarpinetum abietetosum, PinoQuercetum abietetosum, GalioAbietenion and Abies albaCalamagrostis villosa (Fig. 2) (JOST-JAKUBOWSKA 1979). Łaznów is located between Łódź and Tomaszów Mazowiecki, near the villages of Kolonia Rokiciny and Łaznowska Wola (Fig. 1). A total of 46 bryophytes species were recorded – 41 mosses and five liverworts. Thirteen are under legal protection and two are mountain species (Sphagnum girgensohnii, Sciuro-hypnum starkei). Brachytheciaceae is the richest moss family in the studied area, consisting of 13 species. In the forest communities the greatest number of species were found on decaying wood – 25, and the smallest number, three, on rocks. Analysis of substrate preference in this area demonstrates the domination of eurytopic species. In the mosses flora of the Łaznów reserve many interesting species can be found, for example: Buxbaumia aphylla – a very rare species in Poland, Orthodicranum tauricum and Orthodontium lineare – species spreading in Poland, Sphagnum girgensohnii and Sciuro-hypnum starkei – mountain species rare in the Central Poland.

Pedunculate oak in the Białowieża National Park: a wave of natural regeneration?


The goal of the study was to assess the intensity of oak regeneration in major types of biocenoses of the Białowieża National Park (BNP) core zone, in relation to selected factors that could affect that regeneration. A possible influence of the forest site quality, the presence of oak dominated stands, disturbances accompanying spruce stands decline, the presence and amount of lying dead wood and the ground vegetation on the regeneration density, its height and quality, were considered.
A thorough inventory of oak regeneration on 2-m-wide 9860-m-long sampling transects and on 1-m-wide belts contiguous with lying logs (on both sides) of the total length of 7062 m was performed. The total scrutinized area of 3.3844 ha was dominated by fresh and moist fresh deciduous forest sites (ca. 70%), while poorer site categories of fresh mixed deciduous, fresh mixed coniferous and moist coniferous forests occupied 18 and 12%, respectively. Additionally, dead wood resources were inventoried along the sampling lines.
Among the 592 recorded young oaks, the most numerous were seedlings (shorter than 20 cm, 64%), followed by short saplings (20 – 50 cm, 21%), and intermediate saplings (50 – 130 cm, 14%), while tall saplings (> 130 cm) were only 7 specimens. The average regeneration density weighed with the percentage share of site categories in the BNP core zone, 60 saplings ha-1, was similar to the figures reported by other researchers.
The study revealed that oak regenerates six to sevenfold more intensively on mixedconiferous and deciduous sites than in rich deciduous forest sites. The two first categories of sites had almost two times more of lying dead wood (111 i 92 m3 ha-1) than deciduous forests (60 m3 ha-1). The occurrence of intermediate and higher saplings was clearly associated with declining spruce stands (decay phase and gaps), but no correlation with the presence of oak stands was found. On the local scale, the well promising regeneration (in particular intermediate and higher saplings) usually occurred in the shelter (up to 1 m) of spruce lying logs.
Because the large-scale decline of spruce stands began only in the second half of the 20th century, the regeneration of oak observed therein has probably not been precedented during the last few hundred years. The lack of effective oak regeneration in oak-lime-hornbeam forests TilioCarpinetum, with essential participation of this species in the conopy layer can indicate that it is an fransitional community, originated from relict, culturally shaped oak forests.

Rare beetle species (Insecta: Coleoptera) in Kampinos National Park


In the area of the Kampinos National Park, in the years 2008 – 2009, the occurrence of 21 rare beetle species was noted. Among them, 5 protected species: Calosoma inquisitor, Carabus clathratus, Osmoderma eremita, Dorcus paralelipipedus and Cucujus cinnaberinus, 2 protected under the Habitats Directive – Osmoderma eremita and Cucujus cinnaberinus and 9 listed on the Polish Red List of Threatened Animals were found. Also found were 4 species new to the Mazovia Lowland: Platypsyllus castoris, Gnorimus variablis, Tetratoma fungorum and Orchesia undulate and 13 species which earlier were not noted in the park.

Forest breeding bird community of the Morysin reserve in Warsaw


The aim of this paper is to describe the current status of the forest breeding bird assemblage in the Morysin reserve in Warsaw (Fig. 1A), assess the similarity coefficient and dominant structure coefficient between its present community and other breeding bird assemblages from similar forests in Poland and make a comparison with historical data on the breeding bird community of this forest. According to the standard cartography method, in years 2006 – 2007 (Tab. 1) we controlled one (Fig. 1B ) and four census plots (Fig. 1C). In the study area we recorded 34 breeding or probably breeding forest bird species (Tab. 2). The dominants were: Starling Sturnus vulgaris (13.5%), Chaffinch Fringilla coelebs (12.3%), Blackcap Sylvia atricapilla (10.4%), Blackbird Turdus merula (9.9%), Great Tit Parus major (9.9%), Robin Erithacus rubecula (6.7%), Chiffchaff Phylloscopus collybita (5.7%) and Song Trush Turdus philomelos (5.1%). The proportion of the dominants in the assemblage was 73.5%. The most abundant nesting group were hollow-nesters – 14 species (34.2%). The breeding bird community in Morysin is representative for this type of forests and looks similar to other ash-alder-elm riparian forests in Poland (Tab. 3). We also observed significant changes in the breeding bird community of the Morysin reserve. We did not record nine of the 40 forest breeding species that were present there 10 – 20 years ago (for example Long-eared Owl Asio otus, Turtle Dove Streptopelia turtur, Dunnock Prunella modularis and Rook Corvus frugilegus), but we found three new species (Common Buzzard Buteo buteo, Black Woodpecker Dryocopus martius and Nightingale Luscinia megarhynchos). The possibility to compare the present situation with historical data and progressive changes that occur in this place make the Morysin reserve an interesting place for avifauna research. We think that in the present time of disadvantageous changes in the natural habitats in Warsaw, which occur because of the human activity, and are related to the fact that the conservation plat for this reserve still have not been approved, the avifauna of Morysin should be constantly monitored.

Course and dispersion of the posthitis/balanoposthitis
in males of the European bison in the Polish part of Białowieża Forest


Posthitis/balanoposthitis symptoms were diagnosed in 246 males (216 culled and 30 dead) from the Polish part of the Białowieża Forest between 1980 – 2009. The affected males were from 3 months old to 18 years old. The disease affects approx. 6.4% of the male population. It is observed primarily in young (2 – 3 year old) individuals (37% diseased males), and 4 – 5 years old (22%). The illness was also diagnosed in 19 males living in the breeding reserve of the Białowieża National Park. No parallel increase of the disease was observed in males from the breeding reserve and free-living population in the subsequent years. Animals affected the most often in the breeding reserve are young males (69%). The majority of males get infected with the original pathogenic factor during the vegetative season preceding the winter. Diseased males are observed in the entire area of the Białowieża Forest and on neighbouring agricultural areas. We found no significant correlation between the number of the diseased males and the size of the population, the number of males in the population or the density of the European bison. A significant negative correlation between the percentage of diseased males and the average daily temperature of September of the previous year was stated. The European bison bulls with inborn testicular anomalies, such as hypoplasia or atrophy and cryptorchidism, may be more sensitive to posthitis/balanoposthiotis. The illness has endemic character and is limited mostly to the area of the Białowieża Forest (the Polish and the Belorussian part). The intensity of the disease has not been completely synchronized between the two populations living in the Polish and Belarussian parts of the Białowieża Forest in the subsequent study years. In spite of many interdisciplinary attempts concerning the etiology of the disease, neither the source of infection nor the original pathogens of this illness have been revealed.


New data on Dentaria enneaphyllos in the “Sługocice”
Forest Nature Reserve near Tomaszów Mazowiecki (Central Poland)


Dentaria anneaphyllos is a mountain element of the Polish flora, in the Sługocice Nature Reserve on an isolated locality far out of their geographic range, which makes it worth special conservation and monitoring. The number of individuals of the species was counted on a square plot of 25 m2 in the place of their highest concentration. The biometrical and phyto-sociological characteristics of the population have been assessed. 24 flowering and fructifying individuals were found and the population status can be considered satisfactory. The plants from the QuercoFagetea class are the most frequent accompanying species, with a share of taxa from and MolinioArrhenathretea.

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