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PNRP 42(3-4)


Materials to the knowledge of bees (Hymenoptera, Aculeata, Apiformes) of Trójmiejski
Landscape Park and its nearest vicinity (northern Poland)


The state of knowledge of the bees of the Trójmiejski Landscape Park and its local vicinity was presented. In total, 186 species of bees were found, accounting for 38.1% of the national fauna of this insect group. In the analysed bee community, 29 species (15.6%) belong to endangered, very rare and rare taxa in Poland. Highly endangered species include: Sphecodes marginatus, Osmia inermis, Hylaeus variegatus, Andrena florea, A. pusilla, Lasioglossum sexmaculatum, and Nomada opaca.


Herpetofauna of the Lubrzanka River Canyon


The observations were carried out in the years 2021-2023 on the area of the special area of conservation PLH260037 Lubrzanka River Canyon. This area is located in the central part of the 安i皻okrzyskie Province (central Poland). The SAC protects the river canyon and central part of the Lubrzanka river valley. The Lubrzanka is accompanied by oxbow lakes, bends, backwaters, wet meadows, riparian forests and broadleaved forests.
The observations covered different biotopes, including ponds, meadows, forests and agricultural lands. The research included the inventory of herpetofauna and identification of threats, along with determining necessary protection measures. As a result 10 species of amphibians and 5 species of reptiles were found in 9 research localities. The following species were found: alpine newt Ichthyosaura alpestris LAUR., smooth newt Lissotriton vulgaris L., common toad Bufo bufo L., European green toad Bufotes viridis LAUR., European tree frog Hyla arborea L. (or eastern tree frog Hyla orientalis Bedriaga), edible frog Pelophylax esculentus L., pool frog Pelophylax lessonae CAM., marsh frog Pelophylax ridibundus PALL., moor frog Rana arvalis NILSS., common frog Rana temporaria L., sand lizard Lacerta agilis L., viviparous lizard Zootoca vivipara JACQUIN, slow worm Anguis fragilis L. (or eastern slow worm Anguis colchica Nordmann), grass snake Natrix natrix L. and common European adder Vipera berus L. (Fig. 1, Tab. 1).
The SAC is cut across by a busy county road, on which amphibians are killed by cars. In particular, this applies to the section between Podm帷hocice and Ciekoty (length 600 m). The other threats include mowing of meadows, littering, eutrophication, pollution of surface waters and overgrowing and drying of small tanks.


Hover flies, soldier flies and thick-headed flies (Diptera: Syrphidae, Stratiomyidae,
Conopidae) of the Slowinski National Park


Diptera are one of the most numerous orders of insects in the world. Of the approximately 6,900 species of flies occurring in Poland, only 55 species of flies were known from the Slowinski National Park (north Poland), i.e. less than 1% of the national fauna. This study provides comprehensive new knowledge about the occurrence of three families of flies (Diptera) in the Slowinski National Park: Syrphidae, Stratiomyidae and Conopidae. Most of the data were collected during a planned year-long study of these flies conducted in the 2022 season. The material was enriched by data from photographic documentation of Park employees from previous years. A total of 145 species of hoverflies (Syrphidae), 8 species of soldier flies (Stratiomyidae) and 11 species of thick-headed flies (Conopidae) were recorded, as documented from 97 sites of various habitats, based on the determination of almost 1,200 specimens. Based on the Red List classifications for Poland or Europe, seven of the species are at high risk of extinction (categories EN and VU) and six are near threatened (NT). Data have been provided for the future classification of another six species (DD).
The unique character of the fauna of the Slowinski National Park is given by xerophilous flies associated with dune environments: Paragus constrictus ŠIMIC, 1986, Eumerus sabulonum (FALLÉN, 1817). The lakeside meadows, peat bogs and swampy forests typical of the S這wi雟ki National Park are home to many species, including very rare elements in Poland from the Atlantic: Chrysogaster virescens LOEW, 1854 and boreal zones: Orthonevra stackelbergi THOMPSON & TORP, 1982 and Eristalis oestracea (LINNAEUS, 1758). In areas of strict and active conservation protection, dead and fallen trees have become a refuge for several valuable saproxylic species: Berkshiria hungarica (KERTÉSZ, 1921), Pocota personata (HARRIS, 1780) and Spilomyia diophthalma (LINNAEUS, 1758). The nine most interesting and characteristic to the fauna of the Slowinski National Park species are discussed in the context of their occurrence in Poland and two more species are suggested to be removed from the list of species occurring in Poland: Eumerus tarsalis LOEW, 1840 and Paragus tibialis (FALLÉN, 1817).
The current rapid rate of insect extinction is being observed around the world. The above negative trends in insect populations are caused by a combination of many factors, including habitat loss due to human activity and climate changes. Currently, even protected areas may be exposed to some threats to insect biodiversity. The current protection strategy of the Slowinski National Park assumes no interference with natural processes and carrying out only necessary active protection activities, mainly in semi-natural or natural habitats, but transformed by humans, aimed at improving their condition. These procedures include, for example, the construction of gates in peat bogs, bush removal from peat bogs, mowing and grazing of meadows.



Blue clubmoss Diphasiastrum tristachyum – a new species in the flora of the Magura
National Park and the Polish Carpathians)


The blue clubmoss is a rare and endangered species in Poland, under strict protection. After 1990, it was confirmed in almost 30 locations in the country. Only three historical sites in the Sudetes are known from the Polish mountains. In 2021, the first location of the blue clubmoss in the Polish Carpathians was discovered, located in Ciechania in the Beskid Niski Mts., within the borders of the Magura National Park. This species occurs in a grassland habitat with common heather created as a result of human activity. This is the only currently existing location in the Polish mountains with a rather surprising occurrence, as this species is very low in Poland.



European bison and Bia這wie瘸 Primeval Forest in the Lviv magazine υwiec


In 1878, W這dzimierz Dzieduszycki, a naturalist and patron of science, founded the Galician Hunting Society. The society published the magazine υwiec from 1878 to 1939. A significant number of the articles in this magazine were devoted to the Bia這wie瘸 Forest, nature conservation and bison. Our work analyses these articles, revealing previously unknown information and proving that hunting periodicals are a very important historiographic source for understanding the Bia這wie瘸 Forest and nature conservation in this part of Europe.

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