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Dzika Odyseja
Izba Administracji Skarbowej w Białymstoku
Strona główna arrow Parki Narodowe i Rezerwaty Przyrody
PNRP 29(4) – 2010 r.

The vascular plant flora of the Czarna Hańcza River valley
in the Suwałki Landscape Park between Lake Hańcza and Turtul


The paper presents the results of research conducted on vascular plant flora of a 3.5-kilometre-long fragment of the Czarna Hańcza River valley, between Lake Hańcza and Turtul in the Suwałki Landscape Park. The data was collected in 2007 - 2009. In the studied area, the bottom of the Czarna Hańcza valley is covered mostly by riparian forest; less frequently, in areas of stagnant water, by alder carr. The hillsides have been largely deforested and are now used as meadows and pastures. A common feature of the landscape are pine plantations. In a few places oak-lime-hornbeam forest are preserved.
Altogether 401 vascular plant species were recorded in the studied area. Among those of great natural interest, nine are strictly protected and seven are partially protected by law. Four species are included in the "Red list of the vascular plants in Poland" (ZARZYCKI, SZELĄG 2006) and all were classified as vulnerable (category V). The studied flora consists mostly of native species, with foreign taxa constituting only 6.5% of the total number. These were found only in anthropogenic habitats: meadows, pastures, pine plantations and byways. Among the species characteristic of varied syntaxonomic classes, the most richly represented are Molinio - Arrhenatheretea (19.7% of the entire flora), Querco - Fagetea (10.7%) and Phragmitetea (7.2%).

State of conservation of butterfly species listed in Annex II and IV
to Habitat Directive and proposals for their conservation in the Białowieża Forest


The Białowieża Forest is considered to be a refuge for forest species. During the last one hundred years 109 diurnal butterfly species, which, in most cases, are associated with open areas, were recorded within this forest complex. Many species which were common in the past have recently shown a tendency for decline. The paper presents the current state of conservation of butterfly species listed in Annex II and IV to the Habitat Directive in the Białowieża Forest. During the inventory of 2009 - 2010 sixty four sites with butterfly species protected by the EU law were found. The commonest butterfly species belonging to this group was Lycaena dispar - a species showing the tendency for expansion throughout Poland. Populations of forest butterflies: Euphydryas maturna and Lopinga achine were in good condition: numbers of butterflies were high in respective habitats. They do not require any special measures in terms of conservation. The introduction of extensive forest management with single tree selection cuttings should not degrade their habitats. In comparison to the last decade a rapid decline in the number of sites was recorded for Euphydryas aurinia. This species needs extensively used meadows of the Molinietum caeruleae type with Succisa pratensis - a caterpillar food plant. Many patches of such habitat were found still in good condition, and even though E. aurinia was not present there, the good conservation state of its habitats opens possibility for eventual reintroduction of the species in future. Another species which was fairly common in the past - Colias myrmidone - experienced a dramatic decline in the population. It is losing its habitats due to closing up of the open pine forest and a decline in the number of Chamaecytisus - a food plant of the caterpillars. Other butterfly species previously recorded in the Białowieża Forest and protected by the EU law, including: Parnassius mnemosyne, Lycaena helle, Polyommatus eroides, Coenonympha hero, and C. oedippus, were not recorded during the 2009 - 2010 inventory.

Monitoring of ichthyofauna of the Stołowe Mountains National Park


Ichthyofaunistic monitoring in the Stołowe Mountains National Park in June 2010 included non-exploited streams. Its aim was to reassess the state of ichthyofauna: species composition, distribution, biomass, density and the population structure of dominant species after ten years. Fish samples were taken in 17 localities in 11 streams; the localities and methods used were the same as previously. A total of 623 specimens were caught; 8 species of fish and lamprey were recorded. The number of species increased by four in comparison to the previous study (limnophilous species: Rutilus rutilus, Gobio gobio, Carassius gibelio, Perca fluviatilis, untypical of mountain streams). Their presence is probably a result of private uncontrolled introductions. The distribution, biomass and density of brown trout Salmo trutta m. fario - the dominant species in the Park's waters - did not undergo significant changes during the last decade; they depended on the habitat conditions. This is mainly due to the biogenicity of the streams which in turn depends on the varied geological structure of component areas of the Stołowe Mountains and thus varied water conductivity. A decrease in some population parameters (N and B) was observed in the case of the Sculpin Cottus gobio and the Siberian Sculpin C. poecilopus. Small brown trout, rarely exceeding 20 cm of total length, dominates in the streams of the Park.

Herpetofauna of the Kozienice Landscape Park


The research was carried out in the years 2009 - 2010 in the area of the Kozienice Landscape Park. The Kozienice Landscape Park (KLP) is located in the region of Masovia (central Poland). It covers an area of 26 234 ha and holds 15 nature reserves (Zagożdżon, Teodor Zieliński Ponty, Brzeźniczka, Ciszek, Jedlnia, Załamanek, Pionki, Ługi Helenowskie, Miodne, Krępiec, Ponty Dęby, Leniwa, Źródło Królewskie, Okólny Ług and Guść). A characteristic feature of KLP are large forests of the Kozienice Forest. The largest river in the Landscape Park is the Zagożdżonka.

The research included: the inventory of amphibians and reptiles, the analysis of the breeding ecology of chosen species and the identification of threats. It also determined the necessary protection measures.

The following species were found: the Great Crested Newt Triturus cristatus LAUR., the Smooth Newt Lissotriton vulgaris L., the European Fire-bellied Toad Bombina bombina L., the European Common Spadefoot Palobates fuscus LAUR., the Common Toad Bufo bufo L., the European Green Toad Pseudepidalea viridis LAUR., the European Tree Frog Hyla arborea L., the Common Frog Rana temporaria L., the Moor Frog Rana arvalis NILSS., the Pool Frog Pelophylax lessonae CAM., the Edible Frog Pelophylax kl. esculentus L., the Marsh Frog Pelophylax ridibundus PALL., the European Pond Terrapin Emys orbicularis L., the Sand Lizard Lacerta agilis L., the Viviparous Lizard Zootoca vivipara JACQUIN, the Slow Worm Anguis fragilis L., the Grass Snake Natrix natrix L. and the Common European Adder Vipera berus L. (Fig. 2). The research included the breeding ecology of the Common Toad Bufo bufo L. and the Common Frog Rana temporaria L. (Fig. 3).

The main danger for the herpetofauna results from unfavorable changes of water relationships (decreasing water level and drying out of water bodies). Another type of direct impact is the problem of deadly collisions of migrating fauna with cars. The situation is worsened by the pollution of water, grassland fires as well as the pressure that urbanization and tourism put on the environment.

Herpetofauna of the Suchedniów-Oblęgorek Landscape Park


The observations were carried out in the years 2009 - 2010 in the area of the Suchedniów-Oblęgorek Landscape Park. The Suchedniów-Oblęgorek Landscape Park (S-OPK) was established in the northern part of the Świętokrzyskie Province to protect the northwestern part of the Świętokrzyska Forest (the Suchedniowskie, Kołomańskie and Oblęgorskie mountain ranges). It covers an area of 21 407 ha and holds 5 nature reserves (Świnia Góra, Dalejów, Barania Góra, Perzowa Góra and Górna Krasna). The Park is characterized by a high level of environmental and geological diversity. Mild hills are usually overgrown with forests. Valleys are cultivated.

The research included: the inventory of amphibians and reptiles, the analysis of the breeding ecology of chosen species and the identification of threats. It also determined the necessary protection measures. The following species were found: the Great Crested Newt Triturus cristatus LAUR., the Smooth Newt Lissotriton vulgaris L., the Alpine Newt Mesotriton alpestris LAUR., the Common Toad Bufo bufo L., the European Tree Frog Hyla arborea L., the Pool Frog Pelophylax lessonae CAM., the Edible Frog Pelophylax kl. esculentus L., the Marsh Frog Pelophylax ridibundus PALL., the Common Frog Rana temporaria L., the Moor Frog Rana arvalis NILSS., the Sand Lizard Lacerta agilis L., the Viviparous Lizard Zootoca vivipara JACQUIN, the Slow Worm Anguis fragilis L., the Grass Snake Natrix natrix L. and the Common European Adder Vipera berus L. (Fig. 1 and 2). The research included the breeding ecology of the Common Toad Bufo bufo L., the Common Frog Rana temporaria L. and the Edible Frog Pelophylax kl. esculentus L. (Fig. 3).

The main threats to amphibians and reptiles in this area are: drying out of water bodies, water pollution, human presence, fire setting, communication, urbanization and tourism. Moreover, it was found that roads in the Park cross migration corridors of animals. Amphibians were the animals most often recorded as roadkill.

Protection of Polish nature and culture heritage within UNESCO Programmes


A short synthesis of facts and dates confronting Polish activity in the field of nature conservation and cultural heritage with UNESCO programmes gave a basis for the evaluation of the current state of affairs and allowed comments on new plans and needs in terms of further collaboration with UNESCO for the protection of natural and cultural heritage. Almost 35 years since the foundation of first biosphere reserves and nearly as much time since the first objects of culture were included in the UNESCO list the time came for summary and conclusions.

The protection of living resources of nature in the world developed mainly under the patronage of UICN, whereas cultural heritage, especially relics of art and architecture, were under care of UNESCO. The latter institution developed two significant, worldwide programmes: Man and the Biosphere (MaB) encompassing 14 subjects (projects) important in the world (including the eighth subject, i.e. the establishment of global net of biosphere reserves) and the Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage also called the World Heritage Convention, which resulted in the programme of global natural and cultural heritage inventory. Its main task was to manage the World Heritage List. As of June 2010, there were 564 biosphere reserves in the world, in 109 countries, 10 of them in Poland. In spite of the fact that in June 2010 the biosphere reserve of "Bory Tucholskie" was established as the largest biosphere reserve in Poland and one of the largest in the world (319 500 ha), the Polish share in the list is minimal and requires improvement. New proposals for the list concern, among others: the Masurian Lakes, the Valleys of the Biebrza and the Narew rivers, the Roztocze Region, the Orawsko-Nowotarskie Peat Bogs, the Stołowe Mountain Range, the Mouth of the Warta river, the Valley of the Lower Odra river.

Currently the UNESCO World Heritage List comprises 890 nature and culture monuments in 148 countries. The majority of them are cultural monuments (689 objects), whereas there are only 176 natural sites (20%) and 25 (3%) are mixed ones (environmental-cultural). In Poland there are 13 objects, including 1 natural (the Białowieża Forest), one geological and technical (the Wieliczka Salt Mine), two mixed ones (Kalwaria Zebrzydowska and the Muskau Bend Landscape Park), the remaining nine are monuments of sacral and secular architecture. In 2010 there were attempts to include the Augustów Channel on the UNESCO list but this Polish-Belarusian initiative was rejected. Unfortunately, there are no new Polish candidates for the World Heritage List, whereas the situation in other countries is different: Bulgaria proposed the Pirin National Park, Russia proposed the Putorana Plateau, and Tajikistan proposed the Tajik National Park in the Pamir Mountains. This aspect of natural-cultural heritage cooperation between Poland and the UNESCO should be stressed more. Apart from the already mentioned, there are also other regions in Poland which fully deserve special attention, such as: the Bieszczady Mountain Range, the Western Polesia, the Słowińskie Coast and others. Polish proposals could concern protected areas and national parks, as well as other geographical regions independently of administrative borders.


A new locality of Botrychium matricariifolium (RETZ.) A. BRAUN
ex W.D.J. KOCH (Ophioglossaceae)
in the Białowieża National Park


Botrychium matricariifolium is a rare and endangered species in Poland. After 1980 the year it was observed in all Poland only 9 times. It was not reported from the Belorussian part of the Białowieża Forest yet. A new locality of the species was found in 2010 in the Białowieża National Park in the vicinity of the village of Stare Masiewo, in the Narewka commune. The local population was composed of 200 specimens and each of them had a sporophyll. Actually it is the locality place of the occurrence of this species in the BNP.

Drosera rotundifolia L. in "Rybojady" and "Jeziora Gołyńskie" Nature Reserves


The numbers of individuals of common sundew (Drosera rotundifolia) were analysed on 5 × 5 metres parcels on two peat-bogs, one in the "Jeziora Gołyńskie" Nature Reserve, another in the "Rybojady" Nature Reserve. Both areas were described in terms of phytocoenotical characteristics and ground water level. The number of individuals of common sundew found in each reserve was very similar and can be treated as an indicator of good condition of the species. Among other most frequent species accompanying the common sundew in the "Jeziora Gołyńskie" Nature Reserve were Molinia caerulea, Comarum palustre and Vaccinium vitis-idaea, which indicates the process of desiccation of this peat-bog, while in the "Rybojady" Nature Reserve the typical species of Oxycocco - Sphagnetea class, including Andromeda polifolia and Oxycoccus palustris, dominated.

Philaeus chrysops (PODA, 1761) (Araneae: Salticidae)
in Kampinos National Park


The Philaeus chrysops was noted in the area of the Kampinos National Park in the 1950s on small open areas overgrown with Vincetoxicum hirundinaria. Currently the spider has disappeared from this locality because of tree and shrub succession which led to the shading of the ground. In 2010 a new locality of the Philaeus chrysops was found in the Park. This spider was found on the edge of Corynephoretalia canescentis plant communities near the village of Truskaw, approximately 10 km northeast from the previous locality.

New species of protected beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera)
in the Kampinos National Park


This paper describes new locations of rare beetle species which are protected by law. Altogether, there are 17 protected beetle species (including the mentioned ones) in the area of the Kampinos National Park. Two of them - Velleius dilatatus and Protaetia aeruginosa are saproxylic insects connected to decaying wood. Graphoderus bilineatus inhabits water bodies in river valleys. These species were already known from the Mazovian area. Two of them: Protaetia aeruginosa and Velleius dilatatus are mentioned in the "Polish Red List of Threatened Animals'' (PAWŁOWSKI et al. 2002). Additionally, Protaetia aeruginosa is listed on the European Red List of Saproxylic Beetles (NIETO, ALEXANDER 2010).

The XVI Fungi Exposition of the Białowieża Forest -
- general characteristic of gathered fungi


In the course of the Fungi Exhibition of the Białowieża Forest (organized on a yearly basis) the audience is supplied with information on the role and importance of fungi in nature. Emphasized is the unique character of the Białowieża Forest as the refuge for very many rare and interesting macrofungi of the regional (wider than national) importance. During the event, the knowledge of fungi identification is disseminated, concerning both those fungi utilized by humans, and the others - dangerous because of the toxins they contain but also - the very rare fungi, crucial in the context of the Forest unique value.

This year's exhibition was organized with nearly 290 species collected. The specimens were presented divided into a few thematic groups: edible mushrooms, poisonous fungi, not edible species, the group of fungi living on wood and on another substrates (e.g. fungi, insects, dungs, wood-coal, litter) and also micromycetes parasites of plants. Among the individuals presented in the exhibition there were 66 species (that is 23%) included in the Red list of the macrofungi of Poland; 22 belong to the category E - endangered, 15 represent category V - vulnerable, 26 are charaxcterized as the group R (rare) and 3 were ascribed to the category I (indeterminate). Out of the threatened fungi group, as many as 50 (over 70%) are the species strictly connected with wood, 12 are mycorrhizal fungi, 2 are saprobic fungi (litter-decomposing species or utilizing the soil solution) and one by one parasite of fungi and insects.


The fate of Parnassius apollo L. (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae)
in the Tatra National Park and problems of its reintroduction


Past reintroductions of Parnassius apollo (L.) butterflies in the Sudeten, near Biecz and in the Pieniny are compared. The author considers the chances of implementing actions for active conservation of the species with the aim of its reintroduction in the Polish Tatra Mountains. The species became extinct in its known localities at the end of the XX century, as a result of more than 50 years of artificial afforestation and the destruction of regional pasturage. In the Polish part of the Western Tatras more than 250 hectares of their natural habitat were afforested. Currently, individual butterflies observed in the area are most likely migratory specimens or specimens being carried over from the Slovakian Tatras by foehn winds. At present, there is no possibility for the renewal of strong and lasting populations of Parnassius apollo (L.) within the overgrown residual fragments of the former habitat in the Tatra National Park. Should the decision to reintroduce this species in the Tatra National Park be made, the author suggests to choose a methodology which would avoid errors made during former reintroductions and would not result in another failure.

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