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Dzika Odyseja
Izba Administracji Skarbowej w Białymstoku
Strona główna arrow Parki Narodowe i Rezerwaty Przyrody

PNRP 30(1-2) - 2011 r.

Vascular plants of the Kozi Rynek Nature
Reserve in the Augustów Forest (NE Poland)


The Kozi Rynek Nature Reserve is located in the southern part of the Augustów Forest (NE Poland). The reserve protects 146.63 ha of the forests which have retained their primeval features. The majority of the reserve area is covered by swampy black alder forests of various types. Mixed or broadleaf forests of hemiboreal character (dominated by spruce, lime, oak and other deciduous tree species) have developed on mineral soils surrounding the peat-covered depression (and on mineral islands within it). Purely coniferous forests are scarce and represented by small patches of Sphagnum-dominated spruce forests on peat and mesic spruce forests on mineral sandy soils. Until now the knowledge about the flora of the reserve has been very limited. A survey of the vascular plants of the reserve was conducted between July 2009 and September 2010. The flora of the reserve contained 259 species, including 172 dicotyledons, 70 monocotyledons, 15 pteridophytes, and two representatives of gymnospermns. Twenty-four species of endangered plants in Poland or protected by national law were found, including five species listed in the Polish Red Data Book: Carex disperma, C. globularis, C. loliacea, Epipogium aphyllum and Viola epipsila. Alien plant species constituted only 2.3% of the flora of the reserve. There were also 65 species associated with old-growth forests, which constituted 42% of the species considered to be "the old-growth forest indicators" in Poland. A smaller number of these species in the reserve than in the corresponding fragment of the Białowieża National Park may be explained by a significant difference between the share of mineral soils in relation to wetlands in both areas, the relative isolation of the Kozi Rynek Nature Reserve from other forests of natural character and the surroundings of the reserve that are dominated by pine stands transformed partially by human activity. At present, the vegetation of the reserve is not subjected to significant anthropogenic influence. The most important threat is the removal of spruce trees attacked by bark beetle. In order to protect the forests with the most primeval features it would be advisable to establish the strict protection regime in the old-growth forest areas. There is a necessity of monitoring the hydrological conditions, altered by drainage performed south from the reserve, and elimination of alien woody species.


Importance of substitute sites in the maintenance
of populations of the thistle Carlina onopordifolia in Poland


In the years 1985 - 1989 five substitute sites of Carlina onopordifolia were established: first two localities in Mstów on the Kraków - Częstochowa Upland (Góra Wał and glade Golizna), the further two stands on the Miechów Upland (in Racławice and in nature reserve "Dąbie" near Klonów) and the fifth one in Skowronno Dolne on the Pińczów Hummock. Genetic material was collected from nature reserve "Wały". The localities in Mstów were created in effect of cultivation of seedlings, the remaining ones were formed by sowing seeds directly into xerothermic grasslands of the Inuletum ensifoliae association. Only in four sites (two in Mstów, one in Racławice and one in Skowronno) introduced populations yielded flowering plants in the years 2000 - 2010, guaranteeing their regeneration, however in the reserve "Dąbie" no flowering plants were observed since 1987.
he inventory carried out in 2007 did not reveal flowering plants. The particular substitute populations were less abundant than in previous years and population in nature reserve "Dąbie", amounting to only four specimens, was declining. Flowers developed in four localities in 2008 while in 2010 in two localities. The localization of substitute sites should be properly planned and carefully thought over to facilitate obtaining the network of localities lying far away from natural populations and exceeding the boundaries of distribution range. From this point of view the best chosen localities are those in Mstów while the least justified locality is that in Skowronno Dolne, situated only several hundred meters from natural population.
The contribution of secondary populations is insignificant in reference to total abundance of all existing populations and amounts to about 0.3%. Therefore, their role in the maintenance of genetic resources of Carlina onopordifolia is minimal. It seems that establishment of new substitute populations requires deep considerations and improvement of methodology. These treatments are needed first of all in the case of threatened species and endangered localities aiming at the maintenance of the optimal state and abundance growth of natural populations. Permanent monitoring of the substitute populations combined with rational active protection measures are particularly important in order to obtain credible data on effectiveness of this kind of practices and their relevance to expectations.


 Occurence of common maple Acer campestre L.
in "Ostrów Panieński" and "Łęgi na Ostrowiu Panieńskim" nature reserves near Chełmno


The "Ostrów Panieński" and the "Łęgi na Ostrowiu Panieńskim" nature reserves, situated in Jamy Forest District near Chełmno (Kujavian-Pomeranian Province), protect rare forest association in Poland - elm-ash riparian forest Ficario - Ulmetum minoris, which is only slightly transformed by forest management activities and which represents highly natural riparian association. It is the largest natural site of common maple Acer campestre in Chełmno Region. The main aim of the study was to analyze structural characteristic of common maple and its natural regeneration in both nature reserves. We found that Acer campestre is present in all forest association layers. In the "Ostrów Panieński" nature reserve 720 trees of common maple were found whereas in the "Łęgi na Ostrowiu Panieńskim" nature reserve 262 trees of common maple were found. Among the common maple trees found in both nature reserves some had diameters at breast height that exceed 200 cm. Moreover, we found quite frequent natural regeneration of common maple - mean density of natural regeneration in the "Ostrów Panieński" nature reserve was ca. 4000 trees ha-1, whereas in the "Łęgi na Ostrowiu Panieńskim" the mean density of common maple seedlings was ca. 2300 trees ha-1. The results of the study show that in both nature reserves the common maple populations are stable and not endangered.

 Necrophilous beetles: Sphaeritidae, Histeridae - Histerinae,
- Cholevinae, Silphidae of forest areas in the Białowieża Forest


The study investigates species composition of necrophilous beetle assemblages in forest areas of the Białowieża Forest. Sampling plots were established in Forest Districts of Białowieża, Browsk and Hajnówka and the Białowieża National Park. These areas represented 13 forest habitat types encountered in the Polish part of the Białowieża Forest. Each forest habitat type was represented by 12 sampling plots established in old forests. Additionally, 9 research plots were established in younger stage tree stands. Five Barber traps were set within each research area. As a result, from June to October 1999, 5594 necrophilous beetles were collected, which represented 32 species. Sphaeritidae family was represented by the only species known from Poland, namely Sphaerites glabratus (FABRICIUS, 1792), Histeridae - by 6 species, Leiodidae - by 15 species, and Silphidae - by 10 species. Most numerous species among the collected individuals were the following: Silpha carinata HERBST, 1783, Nicrophorus vespilloides HERBST, 1783, Silpha obscura (LINNAEUS, 1758), Phosphuga atrata (LINNAEUS, 1758), Catops picipes (FABRICIUS, 1787), C. nigricans (SPENCE, 1815), Apocatops nigrita (ERICHSON, 1837), Oiceoptoma thoracicum (LINNAEUS, 1758) and Margarinotus striola succicola (THOMSON, 1862).
In the Białowieża National Park and Białowieża Forest District, the most numerous of all caught species was Nicrophorus vespilloides. This beetle was also frequently caught in traps placed in Browsk and Hajnówka Forest Districts. This indicates that the species is tightly connected with forest environment and confirms the fact that it is a typical species of necrophilous beetle assemblages encountered in forests. A considerable number of species representing the Cholevinae subfamily: Catops picipes, Apocatops nigrita and Fissocatops westi, was observed in the forests of the Białowieża National Park. Furthermore, 4 species were recorded for the first time in the fauna of the Białowieża Forest: Hister quadrinotatus (L.G. SCRIBA, 1790), Catops morio (FABRICIUS, 1792), Choleva agilis and C. oblonga LATREILLE, 1807.

 Hoverflies (Syrphidae; Diptera) of the Ojców National Park


Prior to this study only 28 species of Syrphidae were known from the Ojców National Park (ONP). These data were gathered mainly by WAGA (1857) and SZNABL (1881) in the 19th century. During the studies in 1986 - 2008 almost 1400 individuals of hoverflies from 169 species were collected. Presence of five previously recorded species has not been confirmed: Eristalis oestracea, Cheilosia soror, Chrysogaster basalis, Pipizella virens and Sphaerophoria rueppelli. In result 174 species are included in the list of Syrphidae in the ONP, which constitutes 43% of Polish fauna.
Flies were collected mainly using the qualitative method with a sweeping net or when localized "by eye''.
Nine species new to Polish fauna were found during this study: Brachyopa obscura THOMPSON et TORP, 1982; Neoascia unifasciata (STROBL, 1898); Sphaerophoria batava GOELDLIN, 1974; Cheilosia himantopa (PANZER, 1798); C. orthotricha VUJIC et CLAUSSEN 1994; Melangyna pavlovskyi VIOLOVITSH, 1956; M. lucifera NIELSEN, 1980; Parasyrphus kirgizorum (PECK, 1969) and Xanthogramma stackelbergi VIOLOVITSH, 1975.
Exteremely rare saproxylic hoverfly - Chalcosyrphus eunotus (LOEW) has also been found in the area. This species was considered as probably extinct. During last years it has been found in few new localities in Poland.
Three other species are also rare in Poland: Pipiza accola VIOL. (besides the ONP recorded in the Biebrza NP), Eupeodes nielseni DUŠ. et LÁS., 1976 and Paragus haemorrhous (ROND.) - besides the ONP known only from the Białowieża Primeval Forest.
Compared to the whole Polish fauna of hoverflies the assemblage in the ONP is distinguished for their high ecological diversity with domination of predators and phytophages and impoverishment of forest saproxylobiont taxa. However, few rare species closely associated with death wood has been recorded: Brachyopa dorsata ZETT., Spilomyia manicata (ROND.), Chalcosyrphus eunotus (LOEW) czy Temnostoma meridionale KRIV. et MAM. The main reason of poverty of saproxylobiont Syrphidae in the ONP is an intensive forest management which had been led until the park was established.
An important feature of the studied fauna is a relatively high share of species with mountain (4 species) and boreal-mountain distribution (12 species). In total, they make up 9% of Syrphidae in the ONP. Until now, no other group of insects studied in the ONP has been characterized by such a high share of mountain and boreal-mountain elements.


 Occurrence of small mammals in the Kwiatówka Nature Reserve


In the years 2005 - 2007 the research on small mammals was carried out in the Kwiatówka Nature Reserve (the Małopolskie Province). The research was performed with three sampling methods: catching of small mammals with snap traps and pitfalls, and collecting of pellets from Towny Owls nesting in the Reserve. There were 16 species of small mammals found that represented five families - Muridae, Soricidae, Myoxidae, Talpidae and Vespertilionidae. Three species - Microtus arvalis, M. agrestis and Apodemus flavicollis were represented in large numbers, what reflected pray preferences of Towny Owls (the research on pellets). Seven species are under strict legal protection, including Glis glis listed in the Polish Red Data Book of Animals. This type of teriological research was carried out for the first time in the Kwiatkówka Nature Reserve. The use of three sampling methods provided reliable research results.


Short floristic, faunistic and micobiotic notes


 New locality of rusty click beetle Elater ferrugineus
(LINNAEUS, 1758) (Coleoptera: Elateridae) and scarce fungus weevil Platyrhinus resinosus
(SCOPOLI, 1763) (Coleoptera: Anthribidae) from Western Poland


New locality of two saproxylic beetle species (Coleoptera) in the Wielkopolsko-Kujawska Lowland is given. For both species locality mentioned in this paper is the fourth one currently known for the Wielkopolsko-Kujawska Lowland. Both species are strictly connected mainly to deciduous natural forests, but also to the mixed ones. They are regarded as a relict species of these kind of forest ecosystems. Due to their environmental requirements these species are threatened because of currently dominating forest management in Poland. Practical recommendations for ensuring continuous existence of their populations in the "Postomia Valley" reserve are formulated. These recommendations can also be applied to any other natural forests, where populations of rusty click beetle, scarce fungus weevil or any other saproxylic beetle species exist.


 Occurrence of the spirlin Alburnoides
(Teleostei: Cyprinidae) in the Nida River


In the present work some new data regarding the distribution of a rare cyprinid fish, spirlin Alburnoides bipunctatus, in the Nida River are presented. The spirlin, which is considered an endangered species (EN), was recorded on two localities in the lower course of the Nida River: in Pasturka near Pińczów and in Wiślica (twice). All the specimens were captured during the seining performed at night. The species was absent from the seining performed at daytime, as well as from the samples from concurrent electrofishing. It is the first record of the spirlin in the Nida River since the end of the 1960s.


The XXXIII Wszechnica Biebrzańska
Seminar - Fungi in the Biebrza National Park


The 33rd meeting of the Wszechnica Biebrzańska Seminar took place in November 6 and 7, 2010 at the headquarters of the Biebrza National Park in Osowiec-Twierdza. The theme of the meeting was "The Kingdom of Fungi". During the first day of meeting several lectures related to fungi were presented. On the second day, the fruiting bodies of fungi were observed in the field. The article includes a list of 64 species found during the trip.

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