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Dzika Odyseja
Izba Administracji Skarbowej w Białymstoku
Strona główna arrow Parki Narodowe i Rezerwaty Przyrody

PNRP 30(3-4) 2011 r.


Contribution to knowledge of lichens
and lichenicolous fungi of the "Brwilno" nature reserve (central Poland)


The paper presents the results of lichenological research carried out in the "Brwilno" nature reserve in central Poland. The reserve is located in close proximity to the city of Płock and the largest refinery in Poland - a petrochemical plant. The study was conducted from July 2009 till November 2010. There were 54 taxa of lichenized fungi and three species of lichenicolous fungi found. The most numerous group of lichens were epiphytes. Most of them were reported on the cortex of Quercus sp., Carpinus sp., Pinus sp,. and Ulmus sp. Lichens occurring on wood were widely represented. One species, Porina chlorotica, was found on a boulder. The identified biota includes five species protected by Polish law: Melanelixia fuliginosa, M. subaurifera, Parmeliopsis ambigua, Ramalina pollinaria and Evernia prunastri. The taxa listed in the Red List of lichens threatened with extinction in Poland were found in the study area. One of them was classified as vulnerable (VU): Ramalina pollinaria, four as near threatened (NT): Arthothelium ruanum, Chaenotheca trichialis, Graphis scripta, Evernia prunastri, one as least concern (LC): Strangospora pinicola, and one as data deficient (DD): Lecanora persimilis. The paper refers to the influence of air pollution on the state of biota of lichen, anthropogenic degeneration of forest community and draws attention to the role of river valleys in biological diversity of lichens.


New, rare and interesting lichens of the Białowieża National Park


The aim of this paper was to assess the presence and condition of most valuable lichens in the Białowieża National Park - the last fragment of a primeval forest in the European Lowland. Specimens were confirmed during study conducted from June 2009 - June 2010. In this period we noted 96 localities of valuable lichens belonging to 28 species, including 20 relicts of the primeval and natural forest, and 16 relicts of the Białowieża Forest. Most interesting were: Bryoria capillaris, Chaenotheca brachypoda, C. brunneola, C. stemonea, Cladonia parasitica, Evernia divaricata, Lecanactis abietina, Melanohalea exasperata, Microcalicium disseminatum, Pertusaria alpina, Usnea barbata, U. ceratina, U. florida, U. glabrescens, U. lapponica and U. wasmuthi. One specimen - Calicium abietinum has been noted in the Białowieża Forest for the first time. Hypogymnia physodes, Usnea subfloridana and Parmelia sulcata formed apothecia, which is a rare phenomenon for those species. Numerous critically endangered species, relicts of primeval and natural forest, as well as the large size of macro lichens and apothecia formed by some mentioned specimens confirm importance of the Białowieża National Park as a national refuge of the relict epiphytic lichens.


State of preservation of the lichen biota in the Dęby Napiwodzkie
and Koniuszanka II nature reserves in the Olsztyn Lakeland


The paper contains a list of lichen species found in 2006 - 2009 in the area of two forest nature reserves - Dęby Napiwodzkie and Koniuszanka II, located in the southern part of the Olsztyn Lakeland (northern Poland). There were122 taxa identified (100 in Dęby Napiwodzkie and 84 in Koniuszanka II). The most diverse ecological group were epiphytes (118 species), among them the largest number of species was found on the bark of oaks (71) and hornbeams (61). The lichen biota contains 14 species protected in Poland (14 in Dęby Napiwodzkie and 11 in Koniuszanka II) and 49 Red-listed taxa threatened in Poland (36 in Dęby Napiwodzkie and 29 in Koniuszanka II). The biota includes a large group of lichens characteristic for well-preserved natural forests (indicators of lowland old-growth forests) as well as a several other rare species with poorly known distribution and status in Poland (eg Arthonia muscigena, Bacidia hemipolia f. pallida, Bacidina neosquamulosa, B. sulphurella, Calicium parvum, Caloplaca lucifuga, Lecanora thysanophora, Lecidella subviridis, Mycobilimbia epixanthoides, Rinodina degeliana and R. efflorescens).


The snowdrop Galanthus nivalis L.
in the Świętokrzyski National Park


Galanthus nivalis L. is a rare and strictly protected in Poland geophyte, often placed in regional Red Lists, e.g. of Małopolska upland (VU - vulnerable). In Poland, its natural localities are located in the south, mainly in the Carpathian and Sudety regions, and on the uplands of the southern Poland, including the Świętokrzyskie Mountains. The main refuge of this species is the Świętokrzyski National Park (ŚNP), where three localities are known. The locality on Mt Bukowa Góra, covering 30 ha, is the largest and is situated along the crest of this elevation in Dentario glandulosae - Fagetum beech forest. The second locality of G. nivalis is the Bielnik glade, on the northern slope of Łysiec. The area of the population covers 16 ha in the Arrhenatherion meadows and Dentario glandulosae - Fagetum beech forest. The smallest locality of the snowdrop in the ŚNP is the Zapusty escarpment (only 0.6 ha), with Tilio cordatae - Carpinetum betuli forest on a very steep scarp with NW exposition. All localities of Galanthus nivalis in the Świętokrzyski National Park are natural. The density of individuals in the population is relatively high, with an average of 15 - 30 individuals per 1 m2. The analysis of literature and oral information of the ŚNP staff shows that the population of G. nivalis in the ŚNP is stable with no major internal and external threats.


Dendrochronological estimate of the age of conifers
in selected forest reserves in Opolskie voivodeship


This study is a documentary on the results of the dendrochronological investigations on the age of the oldest conifers from selected nature reserves in Opolskie voivodeship. The study included the following nature reserves: Blok, Boże Oko, Bażany, Jaśkowice, Jeleni Dwór, Komorzno, Krzywiczyny, Przysiecz, and Śmiechowice. The dominant conifer species in nature reserves from Opole region - Pinus sylvestris, Larix decidua, Abies alba and Picea abies - were selected for this study. Samples were taken by Pressler borer and for the estimation of the tree age a simple method using curvature of tree rings was used. This method, despite its limitations, allows for more accurate determination of the age than in the case of counting only the rings present in the incomplete borehole. Dendrochronological analysis showed that the majority of the surveyed trees are older than it is suggested by available literature on reserves in Opole region. From the species covered in the study the oldest ones are pines and larches reaching 200 years of age and preserved in the reserves Blok, Jaśkowice, Komorzno, and Przysiecz. Among sampled pine trees, the oldest one reaching the age of 270 years comes from the Komorzno reserve.


  Longhorn beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae)
of the Gen. Dezydery Chłapowski Landscape Park


In the period from 2005 - 2010, data was collected to determine the species composition of Cerambycidae in the area of the Gen. D. Chłapowski Landscape Park. A total of 69 species were recorded, representing 36% of the national fauna. Some of them, eg Ergates faber (LINNAEUS, 1767), Stenocorus meridianus (LINNAEUS, 1758), Grammoptera abdominalis (STEPHENS, 1831), Axinopalpis gracilis (KRYNICKI, 1832), Ropalopus femoratus (LINNAEUS, 1758), Phymatodes pusillus (FABRICIUS, 1787) Chlorophorus herbstii (BRAHM, 1790) and Mesosa curculionoides (LINNAEUS, 1761) were considered particularly interesting because of their rarity and insufficient knowledge of their distribution in Poland. The obtained results allow to conclude that the area of research, despite its agricultural character, has relatively rich fauna of Cerambycidae. The species found were classified into 12 zoogeographic elements, out of which Palearctic species constituted the most numerous group (30.4%) as opposed to Cosmopolitan, Southeuropean, Atlantic and Montane/Submontane species reaching the value of 1.4% each. Certainly, this situation results from the presence of many shelterbelts.


  The occurrence of amphibians in the Protected Landscape Area
"Pas Pobrzeża na wschód od Ustki"


This paper presents the composition of amphibian species in the Protected Landscape Area "Pas Pobrzeża na wschód od Ustki" in 2008 and 2009. In the area of approximately 2 km2 19 ponds (6 permanent and 13 ephemeral) were investigated. The presence of 10 amphibian species was determined: Triturus cristatus, Lisotriton vulgari, Pelobates fuscus, Bufo bufo, Epidelea calamita, Hyla arborea, Pelophylax lessonae, P. esculentus, Rana temporaria and R. arvalis. Most species bred in small and permanent ponds with rich vegetation. These results indicate that a dense network of small water bodies is an important component of the landscape for many amphibian species.


  Breeding avifauna of peat bogs
and wetlands of the Górzno-Lidzbark Landscape Park


During two breeding seasons (2005 and 2006), a quantitative study of breeding avifauna of Górzno-Lidzbark Landscape Park (GLLP) was carried out, using a combined version of the mapping method. The study included 20 research plots, on which seven inspections were carried out during each season (six in the morning and one in the evening). Due to a large variation both in terms of size and accessibility of the plots, the duration of visits ranged from 15 minutes to 2.5 hours. The size of the research plots ranged from 1.87 ha to 36.02 ha with a total of 200.44 hectares, which represents approximately 1.5% of the total area of the park.
During the study a total of 95 species of birds were found, of which 67 were considered breeding, representing 29.5% of the breeding avifauna of Poland. Mean density of breeding pairs of birds in wetland area of GLLP was 27.9 pairs per 10 ha and it ranged from 15.8 pairs/10 ha within the area of Mszar Płociczno I to 98.7 pairs/10 ha in area of Piaseczenko.
The most widespread occurrence of all recorded species was observed for the chiffchaff Phylloscopus collybita and great tit Parus major - 100%, blackbird Turdus merula and willow warbler Phylloscopus trochilus - 95%, while the most rare species with 5% frequency of records included the bitterthe citrine wagtail Motacilla citreola and redwing Turdus iliacus.
Density of breeding pairs within particular research plots was compared using a cluster analysis and adopting the Euclidean distance as a measure of distance. This analysis allowed to arrange the test surfaces into six groups.
First: Areas with equal share of the open areas and wooded areas of a bog birch forest or osier beds. Second: Areas with plenty of open space overgrown with reeds and sedges with minor share of willow shrubs. Third: Large areas over 15 ha with plenty of open space, used as meadows currently or recently. Fourth: Completely open areas covered with sedge fens or bog plants. Fifth: wooded area with birch bog forest. Sixth: Large variety of habitats, with plenty of osier beds and shrubs, and water basins in the immediate vicinity.


Impact of anthropogenic landscape transformation
on the diet composition of tawny owl Strix aluco L. in Biebrza National Park


The study (2003 - 2009) conducted in the Biebrza National Park (NE Poland) aimed at defining the tawny owl diet variety in relation to occupied habitat type. Pellets were collected in springsummer and autumn-winter seasons in three sites representing habitats of different degree of human transformation. The first site of pellet collection was located in a peat bog covered with Scots pine old-growth stand, in the strictly protected area (Czerwone Bagno) in the centre of the Park. The second site, representing landscape under moderate anthropopression, was in the vicinity of the Olszowa Droga village, where owls nested in an abandoned house, located in the forest (Scots pine monoculture) adjacent to open marshland. The last place of material collection was the town of Goniądz, where owls nested in the church park surrounded by buildings.
Altogether 363 pellets were collected, in which 1,127 prey items were registered. In all three study sites mammals were the most frequent prey (Tab. 1), yet their percentage share differed between the study sites. Rodents (as in the case of mammals) were the least frequent in Goniądz and the most numerous in Czerwone Bagno. Open-space rodents (mainly Microtus oeconomus) dominated in the diet of owls from Olszowa Droga (as they nested in the vicinity of open marshes). Forest rodents (i.e. Apodemus flavicollis and Myodes glareolus) were most numerous in Czerwone Bagno (51%) but were not recorded from Goniądz. Synathropic rodents (Mus musculus and Rattus norvegicus) were recorded only from Goniądz. Soricomorphs were relatively frequent in Czerwone Bagno and Olszowa Droga (ca. 20%) but in the town formed only 6%, with Talpa europea being the only species registered. The biggest share of birds was recorded in the diet of owls in Goniądz (ca. 33%), the lowest in Czerwone Bagno (4.1%). It can be concluded that along the gradient of landscape transformation an increased share of birds, moles and synanthropic rodents was recorded, while the reverse trend was observed for rodents and mammals in general. Presence of amphibians in the diet was connected with the habitat type (they were most numerous in Czerwone Bagno, site that was most humid) and not with the transformation level. Reptiles were recorded only from Olszowa Droga.
Food niche breadth value (Simpson index, D=1/Σpi2) was the smallest for Czerwone Bagno, the area assumed to be the most natural. For the two remaining sites the index scored equal values (Tab. 1).
Mean prey body mass was the highest (38.8 g) in urbanized area (as birds, rats and moles were frequently preyed upon there) and it was two times lower in two other sites. Mean number of prey items/pellet was inversely correlated with mean prey body mass and was higher in the less transformed areas (i.e. Goniądz 1.9 vs. Olszowa Droga 3.1 and Czerwone Bagno 3.5 prey items/pellet).


Short floristic, faunistic and micobiotic notes

A new locality of Cypripedium calceolus L. (Orchidaceae)
in the Ojców National Park


One of the most interesting and most beautiful members of the Orchidaceae family in our flora is the lady's-slipper orchid - Cypripedium calceolus L. Localities of this species are scattered across the country, but the highest density can be found in the Lublin Upland, Roztocze and in the southern part of the Kraków-Częstochowa Upland. This species prefers soil rich in calcium carbonate. It occurs in partly shaded forests and is a frequent component of xerothermophil scrub and dry grasslands.
Due to the shrinkage of natural deciduous tree stands, the secondary succession processes, as well as the destruction of localities by man, mainly near towns, it is an endangered species and is strictly protected in most European countries. In Poland it is a strictly protected species, included in the Red List of vascular plants.
Earlier works have shown the presence of at least 18 species of this family in the area of the Ojców National Park, including C. calceolus at three localities.
The new locality was found in the middle part of the Paduch Valley (at the altitude of 375 - 413 m above sea level) in two adjacent ATPOL squares (DF-48 and DF-49). It is situated on a slope with a gradient of 35 - 40º with a northwest exposure. The slope is covered with the oak-hornbeam forest (Tilio - Carpinetum) in the lower part, turning gradually into the mixed coniferous forest (Pino - Quercetum) in the upper part. This area is heavily shaded and covered with fine limestone gruss. Due to the landform features and location of this area within the park, it is rarely visited by men.
Since 2005 the occurrence of 8 sterile and 5 flowering C. calceolus individuals has been observed in this place. Every year some individuals were also observed to set fruit. Although the newly described population is not numerous, it is worth a detailed study to monitor the state of the population in subsequent years.


Springtails (Collembola) of inland dunes in the special area
of protection Wrzosowisko Przemkowskie


A total of 31 species of springtails (Collembola) were found during the study of inland dunes in the special area of protection Wrzosowisko Przemkowskie. The studied area is situated in the Silesian Lowland, in the eastern part of the Dolnośląskie Forest (SW Poland). It includes area degraded by prolonged military activity. There are exposed dunes covered by pioneer vegetation and dry heathlands, located in the middle of pine forests. The samples of soil were collected from November 2007 to September 2008 from 10 sites covered by different types of vegetation. Springtails were extracted by flotation and using Tullgren funnels. From among recorded species two: Folsomina onychiurina and Entomobrya saxoniensis are new for the Polish fauna. Most of collected species are common, but a few seems to be interesting: Hypogastrura kelmendica, Deharvengiurus denisi, Karlstejnia norvegica, Mesaphorura atlantica and Micranurophorus musci. Some species: Mesaphorura atlantica, M. macrochaeta, Karlsteinia norvegica, Folsomina onychiurina and Micranurophorus musci are considered edaphic-psammophilous. The considerable number of unique species found in Wrzosowisko Przemkowskie suggests high value of the area.


The XVII Fungi Exposition
of the Białowieża Forest in Hajnówka


This year's exhibition was organized with 250 species collected. The specimens presented were divided into a few thematic groups: edible mushrooms, poisonous fungi, inedible species, the group of fungi living on wood, protected fungi and also plant parasitic micromycetes. Among the individuals presented in the exhibition 60 species (that is nearly 25%) are included in the Red list of the macrofungi of Poland: 16 belong to the category Ex - extinct/probably extinct and E - endangered, 14 represent category V - vulnerable, 28 are characterized as the group R (rare) and 2 were ascribed to the category I (indeterminate). Five species protected by law and 21 species admitted to public trade by Ministry of Health were presented. While preparing the exhibition four new species (Entoloma chalybeum v. chalybeum (FR.) NOORDEL., Macrolepiota konradii (HUIJSMAN ex P.D. ORTON) M.M. MOSER, Melanoleuca strictipes (P. KARST.) MURRILL, Volvariella murinella (QUÉL.) M.M. MOSER.) for the Białowieża Forest have been found and reported for the first time.

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