PNRP 39(1) - 2020 en

PNRP 39(1) – 2020 r.

Changes in species diversity of lichens in Ciechanowiec
surrounding areas (NE Poland)


The research of lichen biota of Ciechanowiec and its surroundings was conducted twice. On the investigated area of agriculture character 118 taxa were noted in 2003-2004 and 131 taxa in 2013-2018. The lichens of this area represent every possible morphological form and ecological group. Despite the few valuable specimens such as Usnea or Bryoria, the lichenological values of the Ciechanowiec city and surrounding areas can testify the presence of species of Red-listed taxa threatened in Poland and taxa protected in Poland.


Experimental reintroduction of saproxylic springtails (Collembola)
in the Wigry National Park


Studies on the reintroduction of saproxylic springtails (Collembola) were carried out in the Wigry National Park. In 2015, fragments of mother logs were transported from the experimental plots with rich fauna to the plots that required renaturization. They were placed together with fragments of local logs so that they formed stacks. In 2019, at 19 study sites, samples were collected from mother logs in the stacks, local logs in the stacks, logs and branches located up to 5 m from the stacks, and 5 to 10 m from the stacks. The success of the experiment was defined as moderate. This was demonstrated by the ratio of the number of study sites where the majority of saproxylic Collembola species colonized dead wood outside the stack (6) to the number of study sites where saproxylic Collembola species managed to colonize mainly local logs in the stack (9) and study sites where migration outside the mother log did not occur at all (4). This was also evidenced by the decrease in the value of such parameters as abundance and frequency of saproxylic species of springtails with the distance from the mother log. The conclusion was reinforced by the fact that among the species that managed to colonize dead wood outside the stacks, saproxylophilic species (5), and not saproxylobiontic (2) predominated. Considering the short (4-year) time horizon of the experiment, and unusually warm and dry climate prevailing during this period, the efficiency of the tested renaturization method was assessed as moderately positive. As a consequence, it was recognized that its practical application can give good results, especially in large, severely transformed stands.


Dragonflies (Odonata) of the Ojców National Park


In 2017-2019, the dragonfly fauna was studied in the Ojców National Park (southern Poland). This small park (2145.62 ha) protects the nature of the Polish Uplands. Its main axes are the valleys of two streams (Prądnik and Sąspówka) with little standing water, which is almost exclusively artificial. One of the streams (Prądnik) is heavily loaded with inflows from three wastewater treatment plants. The field work covered 52 sites, of which 43 were studied systematically and 40 dragonfly species were found. The most prevalent were Aeshna cyanea and Libellula depressa, Red-listed and protected species were only Ophiogomphus cecilia, Orthetrum coerulescens and Sympetrum depressiusculum. The authors analysed the occurrence of these species and the fauna of individual aquatic habitats (springs, streams, fish ponds, small water bodies) and discussed them against the background of fragmentary historical data. The odonatofauna of the park was not very rich compared to other national parks of Poland, it was also characterized by low numbers of individuals and very small numbers of species recorded in most sites (average 3.3) - with 28.8% of the sites without any dragonflies and up to 48.1% of the sites had neither autochthonous nor probably autochthonous species. Dragonflies in the springs were extremely rare and not numerous, the stream fauna was also poor, and in Prądnik it was clearly degraded by sewage inflows. The few centres of dragonfly diversity were found at two fish ponds, two artificial small water bodies located in the open area and one beaver pond. Without artificial waters, the park's fauna would probably be at least half the species poorer. Based on the collected data, the Ojców National Park was assessed as an area of minor and local significance for the protection of dragonflies, with not very rich and surprisingly strongly transformed fauna.


Wood ants from the subgenus Formica s. str. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)
in Drawa National Park and selected parameters of ant mounds and their location


Wood ants (the subgenus Formica s. str) are common in different forests in Poland. Until this time, we have not had any information about ants from Drawa National Park (NW Poland). 688 active wood ant mounds were found in the year 2018. The mounds were measured (height, diameter) and their surroundings described: general type of environment, degree of shading, presence of shrubs, direction of open space. The largest number of ant mounds belonged to F. polyctena (88.5%), less to F. rufa (9.6%) and F. pratensis (less than 2%). The percentage of abandoned mounds is equal to 10.5%. The overall density of inhabited wood ant mounds was 0.06 per ha, but the result is probably higher. Average dimensions of ant mounds were for F. polyctena 86.93 cm in diameter and 30.07 cm in height, for F. rufa respectively 93.11 and 28.18 cm, and for F. pratensis 71.92 and 17.69 cm. A relationship between the diameter and height of the mounds exists. For all species, the growing trend line is clearly marked on the charts. All species prefer the southern direction of the mound's exposure. F. polyctena is the best shade-tolerant species as opposed to F. pratensis. The most commonly inhabited environment is coniferous and mixed coniferous forest with Scots pine tree (Pinus sylvestris).




Historical outline of the scientific library
of the Białowieża National Park


The scientific library in Białowieża was initiated by Prof. Józef Paczoski in early 1924 - the forest inspectorate Reserve, which in 1932 was transformed into the National Park in Białowieża. He directed the thematic scope of the collection and separated a special section devoted to the Białowieża Forest. The library was associated with the natural museum operating at the Park. In 1929, the library was taken over by Paczoski's successor - Ing. Jan Jerzy Karpiński, who also systematically increased its collection. In 1939, the library had 1 350 items in stock. The period of World War II was favourable for library resources. In March 1945 a branch of the Forest Research Institute was established in Białowieża, which was merged with the National Park. After the separation of the IBL Branch from the Park in early July 1950, the whole library collection was transferred to IBL. At the beginning of 1955, BPN began to accumulate its own collections again. The library was again linked to the museum. In 1960, the book collection already had 633 copies. In April 1960, mgr inż. Czesław Okołów, worked for many years as a museum curator, later head of the research lab, deputy director and director of BPN. He had a decisive influence on the development and shape of the institution subordinate to him. The library mainly collected publications on the Białowieża Forest, as well as more important items in the field of nature protection, and various branches of natural and forest sciences. In January 1969, the collections were divided into two sections, compact publications and magazines. In 1972-1983 the library was located in the basement of the new building of the BPN Nature and Forest Museum, in very unsatisfactory conditions. In 1984, the collection was transferred to the historic palace gate, and in 1991 it went to the Marshal's House, where it remains to this day. The collections are constantly increased, although the very modest budget allocated to the library does not allow the purchase of all the important items appearing on the book market. The library receives some books and magazines by way of exchange. The BPN library also has a rich collection of postcards, photos, engravings, maps, posters, tourist badges and badges, video cassettes, and CDs and DVDs. Since 1 November 2007, the library has been managed by Agnieszka Stankiewicz. The library currently has approximately 12 400 editions in the book publishing department and about 4 200 entries in the magazine section.